The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavic peoples or their descendants.
- East Slavic Languages
The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three...
Since the interwar period scholars have conventionally...
Slavic languages descend from Proto-Slavic, their immediate...
- East Slavic Languages
The history of the Slavic languages stretches over 3000 years, from the point at which the ancestral Proto-Balto-Slavic language broke up (c. 1500 BC) into the modern-day Slavic languages which are today natively spoken in Eastern, Central and Southeastern Europe as well as parts of North Asia and Central Asia.
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the largest language family of the Indo-European group. Slavic languages and dialects are spoken in Central, Eastern Europe, the Balkans and northern Asia.
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- Distinctive features
The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group. They include Polish, Czech, Slovak, Kashubian, Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian. The languages are spoken across a continuous region encompassing the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland as well as the former East Germany and the westernmost regions of Ukraine and Belarus.
Some distinctive features of the West Slavic languages, as from when they split from the East Slavic and South Slavic branches around the 3rd to 6th centuries AD, are as follows: 1. development of proto-Slavic tj, dj into palatalized ts, z, as in modern Polish/Czech/Slovak noc; 2. retention of the groups kv, gv as in Polish kwiat; gwiazda; 3. retention of tl, dl, as in Polish/Slovak/Czech radlo/rádlo; 4. palatized h developed into š, as in Polish musze; 5. the groups pj, bj, mj, vj ...
The early Slavic expansion reached Central Europe in c. the 7th century, and the West Slavic dialects diverged from Common Slavic over the following centuries. West Slavic polities of the 9th century include the Principality of Nitra and Great Moravia. The West Slavic tribes settled on the eastern fringes of the Carolingian Empire, along the Limes Saxoniae. The Obotrites were given territories by Charlemagne in exchange for their support in his war against the Saxons. In the high medieval period
- Eastern group
- Transitional South Slavic languages
- Western group
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages. There are approximately 30 million speakers, mainly in the Balkans. These are separated geographically from speakers of the other two Slavic branches by a belt of German, Hungarian and Romanian speakers. The first South Slavic language to be written was the variety spoken in Thessaloniki, now called Old Church Slavonic, in the ninth century. It is retained as a liturgical language in some South Slavic Orthodox churches
The South Slavic languages constitute a dialect continuum. Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin constitute a single dialect within this continuum. 1. Eastern Bulgarian – Macedonian – Old Church Slavonic – 2. Western Slovene Kajkavian Chakavian Serbo-Croatian/Shtokavian. There are four national standard languages based on the Eastern Herzegovinian dialect: Serbian Croatian Bosnian Montenegrin
The dialects that form the eastern group of South Slavic, spoken mostly in Bulgaria and Macedonia and adjacent areas in neighbouring countries, share a number of characteristics that set them apart from other Slavic languages: 1. the existence of a definite article 2. a near complete lack of noun cases 3. the lack of a verb infinitive 4. the formation of comparative forms of adjectives formed with the prefix по- 5. a future tense formed by the present form of the verb preceded by ще ...
Torlakian, is spoken in southern and eastern Serbia, northern North Macedonia, and western Bulgaria; it is considered transitional between the Central and Eastern groups of South Slavic languages. Torlakian is thought to fit together with Bulgarian and Macedonian into the Balkan
Each of these primary and secondary dialectal units breaks down into subdialects and accentological isoglosses by region. In the past, it was not uncommon for individual villages to have their own words and phrases. However, during the 20th century the local dialects have been in
The eastern Herzegovinian dialect is the basis of the Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian standard variants of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian. Slavomolisano Main article: Slavomolisano The Slavomolisano dialect is spoken in three villages of the Italian region of Molise
Chakavian is spoken in the western, central, and southern parts of Croatia—mainly in Istria, the Kvarner Gulf, Dalmatia and inland Croatia. The Chakavian reflex of proto-Slavic yat is i or sometimes e, or mixed. Many dialects of Chakavian preserved significant number of ...
In broad terms, the Eastern dialects of South Slavic differ most from the Western dialects in the following ways
Slavs are a European ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages.They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe all the way north and eastwards to Northeast Europe, Northern Asia and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan), as well as ...
- North versus South Slavic
- An extinct branch of Slavic
- Constructed North Slavic languages
The term North Slavic languages has three meanings. Countrywise split of North vs. South Slavs "Northern Slavs" vs. "Southern Slavs" grouping marked in a map of Austria-Hungary
It is sometimes used to combine the West Slavic and the East Slavic languages into one group due to the fact that the Southern Slavic dialects were geographically cut off by the Hungarian settlement of the Pannonian plain in the 9th century along with Austria and Romania being geographical barriers, in addition to the Black Sea. Due to this geographical separation, the North Slavs and South Slavs developed independently of each other with noteworthy cultural differences.
Anatoli Zhuravlyov suggested that a separate, now extinct, branch of North Slavic languages once existed, different from both South, West, and East Slavic. The dialect formerly spoken in the vicinity of Novgorod contains several Proto-Slavic archaisms that did not survive in any other Slavic language, and may be considered a remnant of an ancient North Slavic branch.
There is a group of artistic languages forming a fictional North Slavic branch of the Slavic languages. The best-known examples of constructed North Slavic languages are: Sevorian, Nassian, Seversk, Slavëni, and Vozgian.
- Historical dispute
- Historical expansion
- Shared features of the Balto-Slavic languages
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It traditionally comprises the Baltic and Slavic languages. Baltic and Slavic languages share several linguistic traits not found in any other Indo-European branch, which points to a period of common development. Although the notion of a Balto-Slavic unity has been contested, there is now a general consensus among specialists in Indo-European linguistics to classify Baltic and Slavic languages into a single branch,
The nature of the relationship of the Balto-Slavic languages has been the subject of much discussion from the very beginning of historical Indo-European linguistics as a scientific discipline. A few are more intent on explaining the similarities between the two groups not in terms of a linguistically "genetic" relationship, but by language contact and dialectal closeness in the Proto-Indo-European period.
The sudden expansion of Proto-Slavic in the sixth and the seventh century is, according to some, connected to the hypothesis that Proto-Slavic was in fact a koiné of the Avar state, i.e. the language of the administration and military rule of the Avar Khaganate in Eastern Europe. In 626, the Slavs, Persians and Avars jointly attacked the Byzantine Empire and participated in the Siege of Constantinople. In that campaign, the Slavs fought under Avar officers. There is an ongoing controversy ...
The degree of relationship of the Baltic and Slavic languages is indicated by a series of common innovations not shared with other Indo-European languages, and by the relative chronology of these innovations which can be established. The Baltic and Slavic languages also share some inherited words. These are either not found at all in other Indo-European languages or are inherited from Proto-Indo-European but have undergone identical changes in meaning when compared to other Indo-European languag
Present-day Slavic peoples are classified into West Slavs (mainly Poles, Czechs and Slovaks), East Slavs (mainly Russians, Belarusians, and Ukrainians), and South Slavs (mainly Serbs, Bulgarians, Croats, Bosniaks, Macedonians, Slovenes, and Montenegrins).
- related to: Slavic languages wikipedia