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  1. Swedish Empire - Wikipedia

    The Swedish Empire (Swedish: Stormaktstiden, "the Era of Great Power") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.

  2. Swedish Empire was, between 1611 and 1718, one of the great powers of Europe. In modern historiography this period is known as the Swedish Empire, or stormaktstiden ("the era of great power"). This short article about history can be made longer. You can help Wikipedia by adding to it.

  3. Swedish overseas colonies - Wikipedia

    By the middle of the 17th century, the Swedish Empire had reached its greatest territorial extent. The Swedes sought to extend their influence by creating an agricultural (tobacco) and fur trading colony to bypass French, British and Dutch merchants. The charter included Swedish, Dutch and German stockholders.

    • Emergence as A Great Power
    • Dominions
    • Domestic Consolidation
    • Peace of Oliva
    • Danish Defeat
    • Scanian War
    • Charles Xi
    • Charles XII and The Great Northern War
    • Military History
    • See Also

    Swe­den emerged as a great Eu­ro­pean power under Axel Ox­en­stierna and King Gus­tavus Adol­phus. As a re­sult of ac­quir­ing ter­ri­to­ries seized from Rus­sia and the Pol­ish–Lithuan­ian Com­mon­wealth, as well as its in­volve­ment in the Thirty Years' War, Swe­den found it­self trans­formed into the leader of Protes­tantism. Dur­ing the Thirty Years' War, Swe­den man­aged to con­quer ap­prox­i­mately half of the mem­ber states of the Holy Roman Em­pire. The for­tunes of war would shift back and forth sev­eral times. After its de­feat in the Bat­tle of Nördlin­gen (1634), con­fi­dence in Swe­den among the Swedish-con­trolled Ger­man states was dam­aged, and sev­eral of the provinces re­fused fur­ther Swedish mil­i­tary sup­port, leav­ing Swe­den with only a cou­ple of north­ern Ger­man provinces. After France in­ter­vened on the same side as Swe­den, for­tunes shifted again. As the war con­tin­ued, the civil­ian and mil­i­tary death toll grew, and when it was over, it had led to...

    As a re­sult of eigh­teen years of war, Swe­den gained small and scat­tered pos­ses­sions, but had se­cured con­trol of three prin­ci­pal rivers in north­ern Ger­many—the Oder, the Elbe and the Weser—and gained toll-col­lec­tion rights for those im­por­tant com­mer­cial ar­ter­ies. Two prin­ci­pal rea­sons for the small repa­ra­tions were France's envy and Queen Christina's im­pa­tience. As a re­sult of Swe­den's in­ter­ven­tion, Swe­den helped se­cure re­li­gious lib­erty in Eu­rope for Protes­tants, be­com­ing a lead­ing power of Con­ti­nen­tal Protes­tantismfor 90 years. The el­e­va­tion of Swe­den to the rank of an im­pe­r­ial power re­quired that it re­main a mil­i­tary monar­chy, armed for pos­si­ble emer­gency. Swe­den's poverty and sparse pop­u­la­tion meant the coun­try was ill-suited for im­pe­r­ial sta­tus. How­ever, in the mid­dle of the 17th cen­tury, with France as a firm ally, the in­com­pat­i­bil­ity be­tween its pow­ers and its pre­ten­sions was not so ob­vi­ous.

    For the mo­ment, Swe­den held a ten­u­ous po­si­tion of lead­er­ship. Care­ful states­man­ship might mean per­ma­nent do­min­ion on the Baltic shore, but left lit­tle room for mis­takes. Un­for­tu­nately, the ex­trav­a­gance of Gus­tavus Adol­phus's two im­me­di­ate suc­ces­sors, Christina and Charles X Gus­tav, caused great dif­fi­cul­ties for the new em­pire. Christina's fi­nan­cial ex­trav­a­gance brought the state to the verge of bank­ruptcy, and the fi­nan­cial dif­fi­cul­ties caused pub­lic un­rest be­fore her ab­di­ca­tion. The Swedish peo­ple feared that the ex­ter­nal, ar­ti­fi­cial great­ness of their coun­try might be pur­chased with the loss of their civil and po­lit­i­cal lib­er­ties. The Swedish peo­ple looked to a new king to ad­dress the prob­lem of too much power vested in the no­bil­ity. Charles X Gus­tav was a strong ar­biter be­tween the peo­ple and the no­bil­ity. Pri­mar­ily a sol­dier, he di­rected his am­bi­tion to­wards mil­i­tary glory; but he was also an u...

    The Peace of Oliva on May 3, 1660, put an end to the long feud with Poland. French me­di­a­tion of this treaty also ended the quar­rel be­tween Swe­den, the Holy Roman em­peror and the elec­tor of Bran­den­burg. This treaty con­firmed both Swe­den's pos­ses­sion of Livo­nia and the elec­tor of Bran­den­burg's sov­er­eignty over Prus­sia; and the king of Pol­ish-Lithuan­ian Com­mon­wealth re­nounced all claim to the Swedish crown. The treaty com­pelled Den­mark–Nor­way to re­open di­rect ne­go­ti­a­tions with Swe­den. Even­tu­ally, under the Treaty of Copen­hagen on May 27, 1660, Swe­den kept the three for­merly Dan­ish Scan­ian provinces and the for­merly Nor­we­gian Bo­huslän province, which Den­mark-Nor­way had sur­ren­dered by the Treaty of Roskilde two years pre­vi­ously; but Swe­den had to re­lin­quish the Nor­we­gian province of Trønde­lag and the Dan­ish is­land of Born­holm, which had been sur­ren­dered at Roskilde. Den­mark–Nor­way was also com­pelled to rec­og­nize the in­...

    Swe­den had now won con­sid­er­able po­lit­i­cal in­flu­ence, which was less­ened by the loss of moral pres­tige. On Charles X Gus­tav's ac­ces­sion in 1655, Swe­den's neigh­bours may have be­come al­lies; how­ever, ter­ri­to­r­ial loss com­bined with the loss of re­li­gious lib­erty less­ened their ties to Swe­den. At Charles X Gus­tav's death, five years later, Swe­den had not only dam­aged its newly claimed ter­ri­to­ries but also had be­come hated by the sur­round­ing states for its lack of de­fence of Protes­tantism. Charles X Gus­tav's at­tempt to gain the favour of Bran­den­burg by di­vid­ing Poland not only re­versed his orig­i­nal pol­icy, but also cre­ated a new south­ern rival al­most as dan­ger­ous as Den­markin the west. In 1660, after five years of war­fare, Swe­den had ob­tained peace and the op­por­tu­nity to or­ga­nize and de­velop the new vast realm. Un­for­tu­nately, the fif­teen-year re­gency that fol­lowed Charles X Gus­tav was un­able to ma­noeu­vre through the...

    In 1674, Louis XIV called upon Swe­den to in­vade the Elec­torate of Bran­den­burg. In May 1675, a Swedish army ad­vanced into the Mark but was de­feated on June 18 at Fehrbellin and re­treated to Swedish Dem­min. The Fehrbellin af­fair was a mere skir­mish, with ac­tual ca­su­al­ties num­ber­ing fewer than 600 men, but it made Swe­den ap­pear vul­ner­a­ble and en­abled neigh­bour­ing coun­tries to at­tack in the Scan­ian War. At this point, the em­pire began to crum­ble. In 1675, Swedish Pomera­nia and the Duchy of Bre­men were taken by the Bran­den­burg­ers, Aus­tri­ans, and Danes. In De­cem­ber 1677, the elec­tor of Bran­den­burg cap­tured Stet­tin. Stral­sund fell on Oc­to­ber 15, 1678. Greif­swald, Swe­den's last pos­ses­sion on the con­ti­nent, was lost on No­vem­ber 5. A de­fen­sive al­liance with John III of Poland was ren­dered in­op­er­a­tive on Au­gust 4, 1677, by the an­ni­hi­la­tion of Swe­den's sea-power; the Bat­tle of Öland, June 17, 1676; the Bat­tle of Fehmarn, Jun...

    The re­main­der of the reign of Charles XIis re­mark­able for a rev­o­lu­tion, in which the gov­ern­ment of Swe­den was trans­formed to a semi-ab­solute monar­chy. The king emerged from the war con­vinced that if Swe­den were to re­tain its po­si­tion as a great power, it needed to re­form its whole eco­nomic sys­tem rad­i­cally and cir­cum­scribe the power of the aris­toc­racy. Charles XI felt that he could do it now that he had al­lies in the lower or­ders to sup­port him. The Riks­dag of Stock­holm, Oc­to­ber 1680, began a new era of Swedish his­tory. On the mo­tion of the Es­tate of Peas­ants, the ques­tion of the re­cov­ery of the alien­ated crown lands was brought be­fore the Riks­dag, and a res­o­lu­tion of the Diet di­rected that all countships, bar­onies, do­mains, manors and other es­tates pro­duc­ing an an­nual rent of more than a cer­tain amount per annum should re­vert to the Crown. The same Riks­dag de­cided that the king was not bound by any par­tic­u­lar con­sti­tu­t...

    After Charles XI's death, the throne was in­her­ited by his un­der­age son, Charles XII. After a brief re­gency, he was de­clared to be of age to rule. Three years later, in 1700, Den­mark, Poland and Rus­sia, the coun­tries that had lost the most ter­ri­tory to Swe­den, jointly de­clared war. Den­mark was soon forced to peace after a joint in­ter­ven­tion of Swedish, Eng­lish and Dutch armies, where­after the King and much of the Swedish army was shipped to the Baltic provinces, where Russ­ian and Pol­ish armies were lay­ing siege to sev­eral towns. The Russ­ian army was soundly de­feated in the Bat­tle of Narva, after which Charles took the army into Poland with the in­tent of de­thron­ing the Pol­ish king Au­gus­tus II. This took sev­eral years, but in 1706, with the Treaty of Al­transtädt, he reached his goal. In the mean­time, Rus­sia had man­aged to take pos­ses­sion of sev­eral towns by the Baltic Sea. In­stead of try­ing to re­take these, Charles chose to march di­rectly on...

    A major rea­son why Swe­den could be so suc­cess­ful in wars with such a scarce num­ber of sol­diers was its ad­vanced mil­i­tary tac­tics. Swe­den was able to re­form its mil­i­tary tac­tics con­tin­u­ously through­out the pe­riod. Prior to Gus­tav II Adolf's re­forms, both his fa­ther, Charles IX, and his uncle Erik XIV had tried to re­form the army but had ef­fec­tively failed to do so. Charles IX, like most other rulers, had tried to im­ple­ment the Dutch system[clarification needed] into the army but with lim­ited suc­cess. The lack of a strict or­gan­i­sa­tion in the in­fantry caused the pro­por­tion of pike­men to mus­ke­teers to be far lower than the pre­ferred ratio of 1 to 1. This, com­bined with the lack of funds to pro­vide the sol­diers with ar­mour, caused the Swedish in­fantry to be dan­ger­ously lightly equipped and un­able to deal with cav­alry or heav­ier in­fantry in open ter­rain. Charles IX was, how­ever, able to im­ple­ment the Dutch sys­tem for fight­ing in ca...

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  5. Wikipedia Empire

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  6. Military of the Swedish Empire - Wikipedia
    • Overview
    • Military of Gustav II Adolf
    • Reforms of Karl XI
    • Collapse of the Swedish Empire

    From 1611 to 1721, Sweden was a European great power, becoming a dominant faction in the quest for control of the Baltic Sea and a formidable military power. During this period, known as Stormaktstiden, the Swedish Empire held a territory more than twice the size of its modern borders and one of the most successful military forces at the time, proving itself on numerous occasions on battlefields such as Wallhof, Narva and Düna. The military of the Swedish empire is commonly recognized only...

    Upon inheriting the Swedish throne in 1611, Gustav II Adolf also inherited three ongoing wars where Sweden was hopelessly outmatched by its wealthier neighbors. The young king saw the need of a strong military force if Sweden was to survive as a nation, and thus he began reformin

    Gustav II also introduced a new regimental system, in which every province would be able to maintain one regiment of 3,264 men, divided in twelve companies of 272 men each. Four such regiments were to be active in mainland Sweden at all times, and another two regiments would be s

    The Swedish army at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War was equipped with state-of-the-art weaponry of domestic designs, including the leather cannon – a lightweight artillery piece that could fire at a fast rate and maneuver during the battle with only a handful of ...

    Although the new allotment system was created during the rule of Queen Kristina, it was not until the reign of Karl XI that the new system came into effect. After the bloody Scanian war, during which Sweden had suffered great casualties and the king soon realized that his army an

    In the beginning of the Great Northern War in 1700, Karl XII proved himself a gifted military leader and won devastating victories over his enemies with relentless offensive tactics in battles such as Narva, Düna, Kliszów and Jakobstadt. In fact, the Swedish Army never ...

    • 22,834 (1630), ~77,000 (1700), ~150,000 (1721)
    • Stockholm
  7. Category:Swedish Empire - Wikipedia

    Pages in category "Swedish Empire" The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().

  8. Stockholm during the Swedish Empire - Wikipedia

    Stockholm during the Swedish Empire (1611–1718) is the period in the history of Stockholm when the city grew sixfold, many of its present streets were created, and its economy boomed.

  9. Swedish Livonia - Wikipedia

    Swedish Livonia (Swedish: Svenska Livland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1629 until 1721. The territory, which constituted the southern part of modern Estonia (including the island of Ösel ceded by Denmark after the Treaty of Brömsebro) and the northern part of modern Latvia (the Vidzeme region), represented the conquest of the major part of the Polish-Lithuanian Duchy of Livonia ...

  10. Sweden - Wikipedia

    Before the emergence of the Swedish Empire, Sweden was a poor and scarcely populated country on the fringe of European civilisation, with no significant power or reputation. Sweden rose to prominence on a continental scale during the tenure of king Gustavus Adolphus , seizing territories from Russia and Poland–Lithuania in multiple conflicts, including the Thirty Years' War .

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