A trauma plate, also known as an armour plate or ballistic plate, is a protective armoured plate inserted into a carrier or bulletproof vest, that can protect by itself, or increase the protection of the vest. It serves to defeat higher threats, and may be considered as a form of applique armour.
- Shapes and Sizes
- Special Threat Plates
- External Links
Trauma plates can be found in a variety of sizes and shapes. The most common shapes are rectangle, rounded rectangle and irregular hexagon. In concealed vests (vests worn under a shirt), the trauma plates are most commonly 5″ × 8″, with variants including 5″ × 7″, 5″ × 9″, 6″ × 8″, and 6″ × 9″. Thickness (depth) varies based on material and application but rarely exceed 1/4″. In tactical vests, worn as outerwear, the trauma plates are most commonly 10″ × 12″ with some variation depending on the vest. Thickness varies, depending on material and application, but rarely approaches 1/2″. In specialized/military-grade vests, a considerable portion of the vest is made up of rigid, trauma-plate like inserts. Since they are an essential part of the vest, they are NOT typically considered the same as trauma plates and are typically referred to as inserts, much like the aramid ballistic inserts found in concealed, duty, and tactical vests. SAPIvests are an example of this type of vest. In mos...
Most trauma plates are made of a combination of materials. The following categories denote the primary material used in different plate packages.
Special threat plates (STP), also known as multi-threat, special purpose, rifle, and special application plates, are plates that have a notably higher ballistic rating(NIJ standard) than the vest. There is no standard for materials or ballistics for these plates, though most meet the NIJ Standard for armor type III. Many of these plates are made of a combination of materials, like ceramic on plastic, plastic on metal, etc. Some manufacturers use these labels more for marketing than really offering enhanced protection.
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Jan 31, 2020 · A trauma plate, also known as a ballistic plate or ballistic panel, is a protective plate that is an add-on component or insert to a ballistic vest. Its primary purpose is to absorb the ballistic impact of projectiles received and reduce ballistic trauma and blunt trauma transferred to the wearer of the vest.
- Materials and Capabilities
- Sizes and Weights
- See Also
In May 2005, the U.S. Armed Forces began replacing the standard Small Arms Protective Insert plates with the Enhanced Small Arms Protective Insert (ESAPI). An ESAPI provides protection from .30-06 M2 Armor-piercing rounds with a steel or tungsten penetrator, but costs about $600 per plate, 50% more than SAPI plates. They are produced by Ceradyne, BAE Systems, and ArmorWorks Enterprises.
A call for a next generation plate, to stop even greater velocity threats than the ESAPI plate has been issued by the U.S. Army.They have specifically allowed scalar or flexible systems, and are also calling for greater coverage, with less than a pound of additional weight.
The standard plate for the Interceptor body armor is made of boron carbide or silicon carbide ceramic. New ESAPI plates are also made of boron carbide. The standard plates are not given an NIJ rating, as they are tested in accordance with specific protocols for the military and not the NIJ's testing. Military testing calls for survivability of three hits from the round marked on the plate - for standard SAPI, of a caliber up to 7.62x51mm NATO M80 ball and of a muzzle velocity up to 2,750 ft/s (840 m/s). For ESAPI, a .30cal M2 AP (.30-06 black-tip armor-piercing) cartridge. This performance is only assured when backed by the soft armor of the OTV (or any soft armor which meets military requirements for protection. The ceramic plate is backed with a shield made of Spectra, a material up to 40% stronger than Kevlar.,to trap any fragments of either plate or projectile and prevent them from injuring the wearer.
SAPI plates meant for body armor come in front and back plates which are identical, and smaller side plates. The front and back plates come in five sizes. Their dimensions are the following: Front and back SAPI plates: 1. Extra Small - 1.27 kg (2.8 lb) | 184 x 292 mm (7¼ x 11½ in) 2. Small - 1.59 kg (3.5 lb) | 222 x 298 mm (8¾ x 11¾ in) 3. Medium - 1.82 kg (4.0 lb) | 241 x 318 mm (9½ x 12½ in) 4. Large - 2.09 kg (4.6 lb) | 260 x 337 mm (10⅛ x 13¼ in) 5. Extra Large 2.40 kg (5.3 lb) | 280 x 356 mm (11 x 14 in) ESAPI plates are the same size but slightly greater in weight. 1. Extra Small - 1.70 kg (3.75 lb) 2. Small - 2.08 kg (4.60 lb) 3. Medium - 2.50 kg (5.50 lb) 4. Large - 2.85 kg (6.30 lb) 5. Extra Large - 3.25 kg (7.20 lb) Torso side plates are as follows: 1. 1 kg (2.3 lb) | 150 x 200 mm (6 x 8 )
The mechanism of effect lies in absorbing and dissipating the projectile's kinetic energy in local shattering of the ceramic plate and blunting the bullet material on the hard ceramic. The Spectra backing then spreads the energy of the impact to a larger area and stops the fragments, reducing the likelihood of fatal injury to the wearer. It is a false assumption that eliminating the penetration of a projectile into the body by using a personal armour system absolves the wearer from serious injury or death. The same principle is used for the ceramic tiles used for the armored cockpits of some military airplanes, and the anti-spallation liners used in modern armored personnel carriers.
Plate armour is a historical type of personal body armour made from bronze, iron or steel plates, culminating in the iconic suit of armour entirely encasing the wearer. While there are early predecessors such as the Roman-era lorica segmentata, full plate armour developed in Europe during the Late Middle Ages, especially in the context of the Hundred Years' War, from the coat of plates worn ...
Nov 28, 2013 · A trauma plate, also known as a trauma pack, is a plate that is an add-on component/insert to a ballistic vest. Its primary purpose is to absorb and disrupt the? Shapes and sizes - ?Materials - ?Special Threat Plates - ?References.
- Early History
- Late Middle Ages
- Early Modern Period
- 20th Century and Modern Body Armour
- See Also
The Sassanian heavy cavalry units known as Clibanarii seem to have approached the full late medieval suit of armour, but little detail of exactly what they wore is known. Partial plate armour, which protected the chest and the lower limbs, was used by the ancient Greeks and Romans, but it fell into disuse after the collapse of the Roman Empire because of the cost and work involved in producing a piece of metal plate or cuirass. Single plates of metal armour were again used from the late 13th century on, to protect joints and shins, and these were worn over a mail hauberk. Gradually the number of plate components of medieval armour increased, protecting further areas of the body, and in barding those of a cavalryman's horse. Armourers developed skills in articulating the lames or individual plates for parts of the body that needed to be flexible, and in fitting armour to the individual wearer like a tailor. The cost of a full suit of high quality fitted armour, as opposed to the chea...
By about 1420, complete suits of plate armour had been developed. A full suit of plate armour would have consisted of a helmet, a gorget (or bevor), pauldrons (or spaulders), besagews, couters, vambraces, gauntlets, a cuirass (back and breastplate) with a fauld, tassets and a culet, a mail skirt, cuisses, poleyns, greaves, and sabatons. The very fullest sets, more often made for jousting than war, included pieces of exchange, alternate pieces suiting different purposes, so that the suit could be configured for a range of different uses, for example fighting on foot or on horse. A complete suit of plate armour made from well-tempered steel would weigh around 15–20 kg(33-44 pounds). The wearer remained highly agile and could jump, run and otherwise move freely as the weight of the armor was spread evenly throughout the body. The armour was articulated and covered a man's entire body completely from neck to toe. In the 15th and 16th centuries, large bodies of men-at-arms numbering thou...
German so-called Maximilian armour of the early 16th century is a style using heavy fluting and some decorative etching, as opposed to the plainer finish on 15th-century white armour. The shapes include influence from Italian styles. This era also saw the use of closed helms, as opposed to the 15th-century-style sallets and barbutes.During the early 16th century the helmet and neckguard design was reformed to produce the so-called Nürnberg armour, many of them masterpieces of workmanship and design. As firearms became better and more common on the battlefield the utility of full armour gradually declined, and full suits became restricted to those made for jousting (see below) which continued to develop. The decoration of fine armour greatly increased in the period, using a whole range of techniques, and further greatly increasing the cost. Elaborately decorated plate armour for royalty and the very wealthy was being produced. Highly decorated armour is often called...
Plate armour was widely used by most armies until the end of the 17th century for both foot and mounted troops such as the cuirassiers, dragoons, demi-lancers and Polish hussars. The infantry armour of the 16th century developed into the Savoyardtype of three-quarters armour by 1600. Full plate armour was expensive to produce and remained therefore restricted to the upper strata of society; lavishly decorated suits of armour remained the fashion with 18th-century nobles and generals long after they had ceased to be militarily useful on the battlefield due to the advent of inexpensive muskets.
In Kofun period Japan, during the 4th and 5th centuries, very advanced iron plate cuirasses called tanko and helmets were made. Plate armour was used in Japan during the Nara period (646-793), both plate and lamellar armours have been found in burial mounds and haniwa(ancient clay figures) have been found depicting warriors wearing full armour. In Japan the warfare of the Sengoku period (15th and 16th centuries) required large quantities of armour to be produced for the ever growing armies of foot soldiers (ashigaru). Simple munition quality (okashi or "lent") chest armours (dou or dō) and helmets (kabuto) were mass-produced. In 1543, the Portuguese brought matchlock firearms (tanegashima) to Japan. The Japanese started to manufacture the Portuguese acquired matchlocks and the use of these firearms in warfare caused the gradual decline in the use of the centuries old lamellar armour that the samurai were known for; the Japanese armour makers started to use solid iron plates in their...
Body armour made a brief reappearance in the American Civil War with mixed success. However, the armour vests of the time were expensive and thus bought by individual troops and not issued, meaning that the effectiveness of the armour varied widely depending on its maker. Plate armour was successfully implemented by Australian outlaw Ned Kelly and his gang, giving them a large advantage in their gunfights against police. The cavalry armour of Napoleon, and the French, German, and British empires (heavy cavalry known as cuirassiers) were actively used through the 19th century right up to the first year of World War I, when French cuirassierswent to meet the enemy in armour outside of Paris. During the war both sides experimented with shrapnel armour and some soldiers used their own but dedicated ballistic armour such as the American Brewster Body Shield, although not widely produced. In 1916 General Adrian of the French army provided an abdominal shield which was light in weight (two...
The first plate armour was that of bronze, being worn by elite soldiers in Greek armies in particular. Bronze, whilst easier to work with, was much less commonly available (requiring copper and tin, which are almost never found in close proximity). Iron was, however, adequate enough for the task, eventually becoming more popular because of its strength as well as its far greater availability to be used in the advanced militaries of Europe and the Middle East. Gradually methods of making steel were perfected and steel replaced iron in most capacities except munition armour. Steel was continually being made stronger and thicker to protect from bullets but eventually the needed protection was too heavy and expensive for most troops. In the 20th century titanium and super-hardened "ballistic steel" came to be used for trauma plates. Eventually ceramic plates made from aluminium oxide and silicon carbide were introduced as well.
Boiled leather, sometimes called cuir bouilli, was a historical construction material for armour. It consists of thick leather, boiled in water (some sources hold that oil and wax were used as well; others posit the use of ammonia from fermented animal urine). The boiling causes the leather to be harder but also more brittle. The boiled leather can be fashioned into lames or scales to make ...
Emporium is the debut short-story collection by San Francisco writer and Stanford University Jones Lecturer Adam Johnson. Emporium collected nine stories that previously appeared in American literary journals and magazines. Penguin published the paperback edition in 2003.