v. t. Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; / ˈhaɪrəm juːˈlɪsiːz / HY-rəm yoo-LIS-eez; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.
The presidency of Ulysses S. Grant began on March 4, 1869, when Ulysses S. Grant was inaugurated as the 18th president of the United States, and ended on March 4, 1877. The Reconstruction era took place during Grant's two terms of office. The Ku Klux Klan caused widespread violence throughout the South against African Americans.
- Early Life
- Later Life and Death
Hiram Ulysses Grant was born on April 27, 1822, in Point Pleasant, Ohio. He was the oldest of six children born to Jesse and Hannah Grant. Jesse Grant was a tanner. It was hard work, but he made a good living off of it. Young Grant worked for his father in the tannery but hated the work. He went to local schools. In 1838 he attended the Presbyterian Academy in Ripley, Ohio. In 1839 he was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point. He was not the best student though he was good at math. When he graduated, he was placed in the infantry.
Before becoming the president, Grant was an officer in the Union Army (North). He fought in the Mexican War and became a general at the start of the American Civil War. He served as head of the Army of Tennessee and won victories at Shiloh, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga. He became the top general in the Union Army from 1864 to 1865, and fought several battles against Robert E. Lee. Since he was able to do well fighting in the American Civil War, he gained popularity which helped him to become the candidate for president of the Republican party. The Republicans were then the strongest party. Even though he was a respected general and supported civil rights for African Americans, historians criticize his presidency because he appointed his friends into high political positions and tolerated their corruption (even though Grant himself was innocent). Grant was the youngest president, only 46 years old, and the first to have both his parents attend his inauguration.He was also the first ele...
In 1872, Republican reformers split the party and nominated Horace Greeley to be president. The Democratic Party also nominated him. Greeley wanted Civil Service reform and amnesty for all former Confederates. Grant won the election by a landslide. Very soon into Grant's second term the Panic of 1873 started a depression in the United States that spread to Europe. In 1873, Republicans in Congress were caught in a bribery scandal by newspapers. They had collected large bribes to give large fed...
After his presidency, Grant was suffering from throat cancer. He made a long trip to Europe and tried to become president again in 1880. Nobody had been elected three times before and it was seen as wrong by many because George Washington had refused to. In the end, the Republican party agreed to nominate (propose) congressman James Garfield instead. But Grant kept many supporters in the party. One of them shot Garfield the same year, and killed him. Grant never became president again, however, and only one man has been elected three or more times, Franklin Roosevelt. Grant was the first one to try, however. Despite the problems during his second term, Grant was immensely popular, much like a modern-day movie star, and wrote a book about his life that sold millions of copies. He died three days after he finished writing it. He is buried with his wife Julia in Grant's Tomb, New York City, New York.
- Grant's memoirs, two volume work
- Primary sources
Ulysses Grant 18th President of the United States In office March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877 Vice PresidentSchuyler Colfax Henry Wilson None Preceded byAndrew Johnson Succeeded byRutherford B. Hayes Commanding General of the United States Army In office March 9, 1864 – March 4, 1869 PresidentAbraham Lincoln Andrew Johnson Preceded byHenry W. Halleck Succeeded byWilliam Tecumseh Sherman Personal details Born Hiram Ulysses Grant April 27, 1822 Point Pleasant, Ohio DiedJuly 23, 1885 Wilton...
Early biographers 1. Badeau, Adam. Grant in peace. From Appomattox to Mount McGregor. Hartford, S. S. Scranton & co.
Inaugural Addresses 1869 Inaugural Address – Ulysses S. Grant 1873 Inaugural Address – Ulysses S. Grant State of the Union Addresses 1869 State of the Union Message – Ulysses S. Grant 1870 State of the Union Message – Ulysses S. Grant 1871 State of the Union Message – Ulysses S. Grant 1872 State of the Union Message – Ulysses S. Grant 1873 State of the Union Message – Ulysses S. Grant 1874 State of the Union Message – Ulysses S. Grant 1875 State of the Union Message ...
- Presidency and post-presidential world tour
- "Peace policy" for Indians
- Historians ratings
Hundreds of historians and biographers have written biographies and historical accounts about the life of Ulysses S. Grant and his performance in military and presidential affairs. Very few presidential reputations have shifted as dramatically as Grant's. From the time Grant was hailed across the North as the winning general in the American Civil War his military reputation has held up fairly well. He was roundly credited as the General who "saved the Union," and although he has been the subject
Grant was largely praised among Republicans for being a Union War hero and his nomination as president on the Republican ticket was inevitable. Upon his winning the nomination for president at the 1868 National Union Republican Convention, he received all 650 votes from delegates, with no other candidate being nominated. Union veterans were convinced that since he was an effective battle commander and general during the Civil War, he would be an effective President of the United States. Grant wo
When Grant assumed the presidency in 1869, the nation's Indian policies were in chaos, with more than 250,000 Indians on reservations being governed by 370 treaties. Grant's presidency introduced a number of radical reforms while promising in his inaugural address to work toward "the proper treatment of the original occupants of this land—the Indians." As Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Grant appointed Ely S. Parker, a Seneca Indian, a former member of his wartime staff, as the first ...
Allegations of drinking, whether true, exaggerated or false, have been made about Ulysses S. Grant since his day. Historian Joan Waugh notes, "... one of the most commonly asked questions from students and public alike is, "Was Ulysses S. Grant a drunk?'" Charges of drinking were used against him in his presidential campaigns of 1868 and 1872. In 1868 The Republican Party chose Schuyler Colfax as his running mate hoping that Colfax's reputation as a temperance reformer would neutralize the attac
Throughout the 20th century, historians ranked his generalship near the top and his presidency near the bottom. In the 21st century, his military reputation is strong and above average. The rankings on his presidency have improved markedly in the 21st century from a place in the lowest quartile to a position in the middle.
- Early life and education
- Post military career
- Later life and death
Ulysses Simpson Grant III was a United States Army officer and planner. He was the son of Frederick Dent Grant, and the grandson of General of the Army and American President Ulysses S. Grant.
Grant was born in Chicago, as a grandson of President and General Ulysses S. Grant and educated in Austria, where his father was an American diplomat. He attended Columbia University until 1898 when he received an appointment to West Point. In July and August 1899, both Grant and Douglas MacArthur joined their first summer camp at West Point, and they were especially marked plebes for hazing by upperclassmen since they were the grandson and son, respectively, of well-known men. Grant graduated s
After his graduation from West Point, Grant was assigned to the Corps of Engineers of the United States Army and graduated from the U.S. Engineer School in 1908. He also served in the General Staff Corps from 1917 to 1920 and again from 1936 to 1940. Grant served on Mindanao in the Philippines; the Cuban Pacification; the Mexican Border Service, including the Veracruz Expedition, and the Pancho Villa Expedition; as well as in World War I and World War II. In 1904 Grant served as an aide to Presi
After his retirement from the army, Grant again served on the National Capital Park and Planning Commission. He was vice president of George Washington University from 1946 to 1951. In addition, he also served as president of the American Planning and Civic Association from 1947 to 1949. He was also on the National Council of Historic Sites and a trustee of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Grant's testimony as a Corps of Engineers veteran before Congress in opposition to the Echo Pa
Grant belonged to the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War and the Aztec Club of 1847. He served as the Aztec Club's president for three non-consecutive terms from 1951–52, 1953–54 and 1955–56. He served as commander-in-chief of MOLLUS from 1957 to 1961. He also served as commander-in-chief of the SUVCW from 1953 to 1955 and as national counselor of the SUVCW from 1961 until his death in 1968. He is the only person to ...
After the death of his wife, General Grant remained at his home on the outskirts of Clinton, New York near Hamilton College. In 1961, Grant received an honorary LL.D. degree from Hamilton College. Grant died August 29, 1968 in Clinton, New York and was buried at the Hamilton College Cemetery near his father-in-law. His cousin was Ulysses S. Grant IV, the son of Ulysses S. Grant, Jr.
- Early life and education
- Later life and death
- Personal life
Ulysses Simpson Grant IV was an American geologist and paleontologist known for his work on the fossil mollusks of the California Pacific Coast. He was the youngest son of Ulysses S. Grant Jr., and a grandson of President Ulysses S. Grant and Senator Jerome B. Chaffee. He was born at his father's farm, Merryweather Farm, in Salem Center, Westchester County, New York. Shortly after his birth, the family moved to San Diego, California.
Grant studied geology at Harvard University, graduating cum laude in 1915. Following graduation he mined for gold in Mexico. During World War I, Grant enlisted in the United States Army as a private. By the end of the war, he was a second lieutenant. From 1919 to 1925 he was connected with the New York Stock Exchange. In 1926, he returned to school and took graduate courses at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1927 he entered the graduate program in paleontology at Stanford University.
After he received his doctorate, Grant worked at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County as the curator of invertebrate paleontology. Grant then taught paleontology at the University of California, Los Angeles beginning in 1931. He rose from instructor to chairman of the geology department, a post he held for eight years. He retired in 1959. Grant wrote several papers and often collaborated with Leo George Hertlein, his classmate at Stanford.
In 1953, Grant IV appeared on Groucho Marx's You Bet Your Life, where the consolation question was usually "Who is buried in Grant's tomb?". Grant died at St. John's Hospital in Santa Monica, California, from lung failure caused by leukemia. Grant is buried at Greenwood Memorial Park alongside his father.
His first wife was Matilda Bartikofsky. They were married in Spartanburg, South Carolina, on October 4, 1917, and later divorced. In 1950, he married Frances Dean, who was born circa 1911 in Kentucky and died December 8, 1991, in Honolulu, Hawaii. They had one child named George Grant. Grant's cousin was Major General Ulysses S. Grant III, the son of Major General Frederick Dent Grant.