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2 Nuuk, Greenland Nuuk is the capital city of Greenland. Located on the country’s southwest coast, the city has a polar tundra climate. In winter, the weather is very cold and snowy, and the days are also very short. The coldest months are February and March, when the average low is –10.7˚C. In summer, the days
Oct 04, 2010 · When we plot the homogenized data, we see a positive artificial trend of 0.74°C from 1900 to 2007, about 0.7°C per century. When you look at the GISS plotted map of trends with 250KM smoothing, using that homogenized data and GISS standard 1951-1980 baseline, you can see Nuuk is assigned an orange block of 0.5 to 1C trend. Source for map here.
- Siberia, Russia
- United States of America
If you want to feel cold, go to Oymyakon, Siberia, where they recorded a bone-chilling minus 90 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 68 degrees Celsius) in February 1933. Only Verkhoyansk, Siberia, has a colder record, minus 90 degrees Fahrenheit, on February 7, 1892. The residents of Oymyakon have learned to adapt to the cold: the town’s single school closes only when the temperature drops below minus 61.6 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 52 degrees Celsius). According to reports from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA), Siberia is a breeding ground for frigid temperatures due to its long winter nights, an abundance of snow, and location deep in Russia’s interior, away from any body of water that might have a moderating effect on its weather. They add that the South Pole holds the global record for the coldest temperature on Earth, minus 128 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 89 degrees Celsius) in 1983.
Canada is one of the world’s coldest countries, located in North America. Although some regions of the country have comparatively warm summers, don’t be deceived; temperatures in some parts of Canadamay be freezing throughout the winter. Winds can be strong, and temperatures might drop below minus 15 to minus 40 degrees Celsius. Temperatures in the northern portion of the country (where Eskimos live) range from 15 degrees Celsius in the summer to well below -40 degrees Celsius in the winter. Despite its location in the far north, Canada boasts abundant flora and lakes, unlike Greenland.
Although not all of the country’s areas have the same temperature, the United States is considered one of the world’s coldest countries. Yes, states like Florida and Texasare warm and attract sunbathers, yet the United States of America can be a frigid place to live. The United States of America is the world’s third-largest country by land area, stretching from the Pacific Oceanin the west to the Atlantic in the East. As a result, it’s no surprise that the country’s geography and climate are so diverse. The temperature in the north, predictably, is significantly colder, which leads us to Alaska. Alaska has a climate that is remarkably similar to that of the North Pole. The Fairbanks area has the coldest temperature, with -51°C (-60°F) as the lowest recorded temperature. Other places that endure extreme cold, besides Alaska, are Stanley, Idaho, and Crested Butte, Colorado, where temperatures can drop below zero.
Kazakhstan is a former Soviet republic and a close neighbor of Russia. Mountain ranges, hills, and plateaus cover much of Kazakhstan. The entire region may be reasonably cold even without the high heights, much less when you have to confront the frigid winds so far up in the mountains. Additionally, there is a significant amount of snow to contend with, as well as heavy rains. The country’s capital, Astana, has an average winter temperature of -30°C to -35°C (-22°F to -31°F). Usually, the river in the city freezes between November and April.
Do you want to witness a contradiction? Take a look at Greenland, for example. Greenland is the country’s name, yet a substantial portion is continuously covered in ice, making it one of the world’s coldest countries. Because it is more white than green, this country’s proper name should be Whiteland or Iceland. Greenland is one of the countries with the longest coastlines in the world. The capital Nuuk’saverage daily temperature varies from -8° C (18° F) in February to 7° C (45° F) in July. If you compare notes in the Scandinavian region, you’ll notice that this area has a relatively warm climate, which explains why it’s one of the most populous. During the winter, however, certain parts of Greenland experience temperatures as low as -50° C (-58°F). You have to become acclimated to the cold in that area to survive it, and even then, it isn’t easy.
Norway is a country in the Scandinavian region, high on the crest of Europe. Because it is so close to the North Pole, one would expect the locals to freeze to death, but because of the North Atlantic Current, the climate is pleasantly mild. Norway is a stunning country populated by cultured people who enjoy a stable economy and all of life’s pleasures. Every year, a large number of hikers and winter sports enthusiasts go to Norway. One branch of this current, which runs around the west coast of Spitsbergen, affects the Arctic polar climate. Finnmarksvidda in central Norway has the coldest winters, but it is not the coldest place in Norway; the coldest temperature ever recorded in the country was at Karasjokin the far northeastern section. Meteorologists measured it at -51.2°C (-60.2°F) in January 1999. However, there are many unofficial reports that it is significantly colder.
Iceland is not as ice-covered as you might think. Yes, there are mountains covered in snow, but there are also temperate zones. Iceland does not have as hard a winter as some other nations on the same latitude; the country benefits from the North Atlantic Current, which keeps parts of the region more temperate. In the winter, the average temperature in Iceland’s Highlandsis around -10°C (14°F). However, you can find temperatures as low as -30° C (-22°F) further north. Iceland is one of the best spots to see the aurora borealis, also known as the northern lights. Iceland’s temperatures can quickly drop to minus 10 degrees or below, making it one of the world’s coldest places. The northern portions of Iceland have year-round sub-zero temperatures, yet the country’s moist air makes the climate more conducive to plant development. Nature lovers regard the Vatnajokull Glacier Caveas one of the world’s most spectacular caverns.
Finland is one of the world’s most remote countries, as well as one of Europe’s most sparsely populated. It is not the coldest, but it does have one of the longest winters and the most challenging weather. Imagine a year with 200 days of winter and 365 days of summer. During the winter, the northernmost section of Finland does not see the sun for 51 days, and temperatures in Laplandcan reach -45°C (-49°F), making Finland one of the world’s coldest countries. The Aurora Borealis, often known as the Northern Lights, is a natural phenomenon in the country. Because of the constant presence of snow, the Finns have left an indelible impact on the Winter Olympic Games, winning some of the most medals globally.
Estonia is a small country in Northern Europe with a population of just over a million people. Although the country can be hot in the summer, the country’s irregular rains can cause temperatures to drop at any time of year. Due to the monsoonwinds, temperatures frequently drop below zero, making the location exceedingly chilly. February is the coldest month, with an average temperature of -5.7°C (21.7°F). -43.5°C (-46.3°F) is the lowest temperature ever recorded. Because of its low cost, stunning medieval buildings, and thick pine forests, Estonia is one of Europe’s most popular tourist destinations.
Mongolia is the last country on the list. Our trek south from Russia and Kazakhstan continues. It is situated in Central Asia and is surrounded by mountain ranges, making the climate considerably cooler. The high peaks halt the cold winds flowing in from the north, resulting in a considerable amount of snowfall throughout the country and temperatures that can quickly drop to minus twenty degrees in the winter. Mongolia is home to several nomadic tribes, most of which dwell in the mountains. They have adapted their lifestyles to the country’s harsh temperatures and flourish in this frigid climate.
- Overview of Conditions
- Conditions in Context
- Greenland Still on A Diet
- Greenland’s Glaciers: More to Their Change Than Just Faster Flow
- Further Reading
The total aerial extent of surface melting (total melt-day extent) through October 31 is slightly above the 1981 to 2010 average at 23.10 million square kilometers (8.92 million square miles) for 2020 versus 22.00 million square kilometers (8.49 million square miles) for the 1981 to 2010 average. Melting was intense in the northeastern section of the ice sheet, with 20 to 25 additional melt days than average, and moderately intense in the southwestern section of the ice sheet with 10 to 20 additional melt days (Figure 1). The peak melt day for 2020 was on July 10, when 551,000 square kilometers (213,000 square miles), or 34 percent of the ice sheet surface, melted. There were two later melt events of note, on August 20 when extensive areas in northwestern Greenland melted totaling just over 20 percent of the ice sheet, and a late event on October 17, limited to the southwestern ice sheet totaling under 3 percent of the ice. Overall the pace of melt during the 2020 season was close t...
Air temperatures above Greenland were generally near average over the summer months this year (Figure 3). Higher-than-average temperatures, with up to 3 degrees Celsius (5 degrees Fahrenheit) were limited to the far northern flank of the ice sheet, and significantly lower-than-average temperatures of 1.5 to 2 degrees Celsius (3 to 4 degrees Fahrenheit) near the Scoresby Sund in east-central Greenland. Though local surface winds can be quite high under certain conditions, air pressure patterns over the ice sheet indicated generally light regional winds that favored a westward to southwestward flow. Air off the far northern Atlantic Ocean in the Norwegian Sea swept in across the ice sheet. This pattern of temperature and pressure was remarkably consistent through all the individual months of June, July, and August. A look at weather station data along Greenland’s west coast reflects the regional temperature trends (Figure 4). Nuuk, the capital of Greenland on the central southwestern...
Net surface mass balance (SMB), which is the snow and rain input minus evaporation and melt runoff, was only slightly less than average at 314 billion tons, or 56 billion tons below the 1981 to 2010 average, according to the MARv3.11 climate model(Figure 5a). This can be compared to the major melt and ice loss years of 2012, 2019, and others in the last decade with values between 225 and 325 billion tons below average (Figure 5b). The 2020 regional pattern had low SMB all along the western side of the ice sheet but near average to slightly above average along most of the eastern coastal areas.
With a growing record of satellite imagery and advances in image processing, scientists are now able to better explore the changes to Greenland’s coastal area in the last three decades. A new paper by our colleagues Twila Moon, Alex Gardner, Bea Csatho, Ivan Parmuzin, and Mark Fahnestock analyzes how ice outflow speed and surface melting have increased. Every year since 1998, the ice sheet has overall lost ice. Satellite sensor improvements, such as on Landsat 7 and 8, and improvements in image processing for ice flow mapping (see ITS_LIVE) have created an improved set of maps for documenting changes in Greenland’s ice outflow. These maps reveal substantial reconfigurations of several major glaciers (Figure 6). For many fast-flowing glaciers, the research team found that the central channel of fast flow has sped up, but the edges of the channel have slowed, effectively narrowing the width of the fast flow area. Researchers also see evidence for ice flow rerouting and even abandonmen...
Moon, T. A., A. S. Gardner, B. Csatho, I. Parmuzin, and M. A. Fahnestock. 2020. Rapid reconfiguration of the Greenland Ice Sheet coastal margin. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 125, doi:10.1029/2020JF005585. Tedesco, M. and X. Fettweis. 2020. Unprecedented atmospheric conditions (1948–2019) drive the 2019 exceptional melting season over the Greenland ice sheet. The Cryosphere, 14, 1209–1223, doi:10.5194/tc-14-1209-2020. The 2020 Greenland Ice Sheet SMB simulated by MARv3.5.2 in real time Polar Portal’s Greenland surface conditions Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE)
Jason Box, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS)in Copenhagen, Denmark Xavier Fettweis, Université of Liège in Belgium, providing the MARv3.11model results Twila Moon, National Snow and Ice Data Center Thomas Mote, University of Georgia
Russia is the coldest country in the world in terms of the coldest temperature ever recorded. Both Verkhoyansk and Oymyakon in the Sakha Republic have experienced the freezing cold temperature of −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F). Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia has a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly the Sakha Republic, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of −71.2 °C or −96.2 °F), and more moderate winters elsewhere. Both the strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate. Despite the extremely cold temperature, more than 500 people live in Oymyakon and another 1400 people embrace the cold in Verkhoyansk every year. The coldest temperature ever recorded: −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) The Coldest country in the world
Greenland is an autonomous country that belongs to the Kingdom of Denmark with self-governance, and the coldest temperature ever recorded on the largest island in the world was −66.1 °C (−87.0 °F) in 1954. The lowest temperature ever recorded in the Northern Hemisphere was recorded in Greenland, near the topographic summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet, on 22 December 1991, when the temperature reached −69.6 °C (−93.3 °F). In Nuuk, the average daily temperature varies over the seasons from −5.1 to 9.9 °C (23 to 50 °F) As of 2021, some 56,081 people are living in Greenland, and most of them are either Inuit or of Danish descent. On the other side of the temperature, the hottest temperature ever recorded in Greenland was 30.1 °C (86.2 °F). There are big differences between summer and winter, and for the people living here, it’s important to be prepared for all seasons. The coldest temperature ever recorded: −66.1 °C (−87.0 °F) Greenland is the largest island in the world
Canada is the coldest country in North America with the coldest temperature ever recorded at −63.0 °C (−81.4 °F), in Snag, Yukon in 1947. While many places in the north of Canada are relatively cold or temperate year-round, there are also places that observe high temperatures during summer. Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills. In non-coastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average su...
The United States is a massive country with various temperatures depending on the state and time of the year. What’s unique about the U.S is the fact that it ranks as one of the coldest countries in the world and also ranks as one of the hottest countries in the world. The lowest temperature ever recorded in the USA was −62.2 °C (−80 °F) in Prospect Creek in Alaska. Some of the coldest states in the U.S are Alaska, Montana, Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado which ranges between −80 °F / −62 °C to −61 °F / −52 °C on the record low temperatures of each state. The coldest temperature ever recorded: −62.2 °C (−80 °F)
China is one of the coldest countries in the world because of its freezing cold winters in the north. The southern parts are much warmer compared to −58 °C (−72 °F) which is the lowest temperature ever recorded in China. The record low was observed in Genhe in the autonomous province of Inner Mongolia on 31 December 2009. The coldest temperature ever recorded: −58 °C (−72 °F) Winter in China
Mongolia is yet another country that sees large variations in temperatures throughout the year with cold winters and warm summers. The coldest temperature in Mongolia was observed in Züüngovi, Uvs Province back in 1976 in the month of December. Most of the country is hot in the summer and extremely cold in the winter, with January averages dropping as low as −30 °C (−22 °F). The Khangai Mountainsplay a certain role in forming this microclimate. In Tsetserleg, the warmest town in this microclimate, nighttime January temperatures rarely go under −30 °C (−22 °F) while daytime January temperatures often reach 0 °C (32 °F) to 5 °C (41 °F) The country is subject to occasional harsh climatic conditions known as zud. Zud, which is a natural disaster unique to Mongolia, results in large proportions of the country’s livestock dying from starvation or freezing temperatures or both, resulting in economic upheaval for the largely pastoral population. The annual average temperature in Ulaanbaatar...
Kyrgyzstan is another Central Asian country with harsh and cold winters. Temperatures as low as -30°C (-22°F) are common in several valleys with snow covering the landscapes and mountain slopes. The climate varies regionally. The low-lying Fergana Valley in the southwest is subtropical and extremely hot in summer, with temperatures reaching 40 °C (104 °F) The northern foothills are temperate and the Tian Shan varies from dry continental to polar climate, depending on elevation. In the coldest areas temperatures are sub-zero for around 40 days in winter, and even some desert areas experience constant snowfall in this period. In the lowlands the temperature ranges from around −6 °C (21 °F) in January to 24 °C (75 °F) in July The winter in Kyrgyzstan typically lasts from December to February. The coldest temperature ever recorded: −53.6 °C (−64.5 °F) Winter in Kyrgyzstan
The northern part of Sweden has a mild summer climate, and very cold winters with snow covering the landscapes for several months. The lowest ever recorded temperature in Sweden reached −53.0 °C (−63.4 °F), in Malgovik in Västerbotten County. In “Norrland” it’s common with temperatures around -40 degrees Celsius in wintertime. However, temperatures in mid-Sweden and the southern part of the country are usually much lower. During July there is not much difference in temperature between the north and south of the country. With the exception of in the mountains, the whole country has a July-average temperature within the range of 15 °C (59 °F) to 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) (a difference of 2.5 degrees Celsius), while the January-average temperatures vary from freezing point down to below −15 °C (5 °F) along the border with Finland (a difference of 15 degrees Celsius) The coldest temperature ever recorded: −53.0 °C (−63.4 °F) Winter in Sweden World’s coldest countries by average yearly temperatu...