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    • How did the word złoty get its name?

      • The word złoty is a masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', which closely relates with its name to the Dutch guilder whereas the grosz subunit was based on German groschen, cognate to the English word " groat ". It was officially introduced to replace its predecessor, the Polish marka, on 28 February 1919 and began circulation in 1924.
  1. Poland joined the European Union as part of its enlargement in 2004. However, Poland has not adopted the euro as its currency and legal tender, but instead uses the Polish złoty. In April 2010, Polish president Lech Kaczynski and dozens of the country's top political and military leaders died in the Smolensk air disaster.

  2. After the third partition of Poland, the name złoty existed only in Austrian and Russian lands. Prussia had introduced the mark instead.

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  4. › wiki › Polish_namePolish name - Wikipedia

    Polish names have two main elements: the imię, the first name, or given name; and the nazwisko, the last name, family name (surname). The usage of personal names in Poland is generally governed by civil law, church law, personal taste and family custom. The law requires a given name ( imię) to indicate the person's gender.

  5. › wiki › PolandPoland - Wikipedia

    Poland has a population of nearly 38.5 million people, and is the fifth-most populous member state of the European Union. Warsaw is the nation's capital and largest metropolis. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

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    The independence of Poland had been successfully promoted to the Allies in Paris by Roman Dmowski and Ignacy Paderewski. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson made the independence of Poland a war goal in his Fourteen Points, and this goal was endorsed by the Allies in spring 1918. As part of the Armistice terms imposed on Germany, all German forces had to stand down in Poland and other occupied areas. So as the war ended, the Germans sent Piłsudski, then under arrest, back to Warsaw. On November 11, 1918, he took control of the puppet government the Germans had set up. Ignacy Daszyński headed a short-lived Polish government in Lublin from November 6 but Piłsudski had overwhelming prestige at this point. Daszyński and the other Polish leaders acknowledged him as head of the army and in effect head of what became the Republic of Poland. Germany, now defeated, followed the terms of the Armistice and withdrew its forces. Jędrzej Moraczewski became the first prime minister (in November 1918) an...

    Reborn Poland faced a host of daunting challenges: extensive war damage, a ravaged economy, a population one-third composed of wary national minorities, an economy largely under the control of German industrial interests, and a need to reintegrate the three zones that had been forcibly kept apart during the era of partition. Poland's formal political life began in 1921 with the adoption of a constitution that designed Poland as a republic modeled after the French Third Republic, vesting most authority in the legislature, the Sejm. This was mainly to prevent Piłsudski from establishing himself as a dictator. A multitude of political parties emerged, of which there were four major and dozens of minor ones. All had very different ideologies and voter bases, and could scarcely agree on any major issue. There had been no serious consideration of re-establishing a monarchy, and although the great Polish noble families continued to have their names mentioned in newspapers, it was mostly in...

    Foreign minister Józef Beck was in full charge of foreign policy by 1935 but he had a weak hand. Poland with 35 million people had a large population but a thin industrial base; its war plans focused on the Soviet Union instead of Germany. Poland had long borders with two more powerful dictatorships, Hitler's Germany and Stalin's USSR. Poland was increasingly isolated. Overy says that of all the new states in Europe: 1. "Poland was almost certainly the most disliked and her Foreign Minister the most distrusted. Poland's pursuit of an independent line left her bereft of any close friends by the end of 1938…. The Western powers saw Poland as a greedy revisionist power, illiberal, anti-Semitic, pro-German; Beck was a 'menace,' 'arrogant and treacherous.'" In February 1921, Poland signed a secret military agreement with France, which obliged each party to mutual aid in the event of German aggression. In March 1921, the Poles signed a treaty of mutual assistance with Romania, directed ag...

    This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website - Poland.


    1. Berend, Iván T. Decades of Crisis: Central and Eastern Europe before World War II(1998), comparisons with other countries 2. Biskupski, M. B. The History of Poland. Greenwood, 2000. 264 pp. online edition 3. The Cambridge History of Poland, (2 vols., Cambridge University Press, 1941) covers 1697–1935 4. Davies, Norman. God's Playground. A History of Poland. Vol. 2: 1795 to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. 5. Davies, Norman. Heart of Europe: A Short History of Poland.Oxfo...

    Politics and diplomacy

    1. Cienciala, Anna M., and Titus Komarnicki. From Versailles to Locarno: keys to Polish foreign policy, 1919–25(University Press of Kansas, 1984) 2. Davies, Norman. White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War 1919-1920 and The Miracle on the Vistula(2003) 3. Drzewieniecki, Walter M. "The Polish Army on the Eve of World War II," Polish Review (1981) 26#3 pp 54-64. in JSTOR 4. Garlicki, Andrzej. Józef Piłsudski, 1867-1935(New York: Scolar Press 1995), scholarly biography; one-vol version of 4...

    Social and economic topics

    1. Abramsky, C. et al. eds. The Jews in Poland(Oxford: Blackwell 1986) 2. Bartoszewski, W. and Polonsky, A., eds. The Jews in Warsaw. A History(Oxford: Blackwell 1991) 3. Blanke, R. Orphans of Versailles. The Germans in Western Poland, 1918-1939(1993) 4. Gutman, Y. et al. eds. The Jews of Poland Between Two World Wars(1989). 5. Heller, C. S. On the Edge of Destruction. Jews of Poland Between the Two World Wars(1977) 6. Hoffman, E. Shtetl. The Life and Death of a Small Town and the World of Po...

  6. Poland, in the form of a long Republic of Poland, is a central European state bordering Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, Russian enclave of Kaliningrad and Lithuania to the north. Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world with a population of 38 million.

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