The first care of the new elector was to come to terms with John Frederick, and to strengthen his own hold upon the electoral position. This object was secured by a treaty made at Naumburg in February 1554, when, in return for the grant of Altenburg and other lands, John Frederick recognized Augustus as elector of Saxony.
Augustus II the Strong (Polish: August II Mocny; German: August der Starke; Lithuanian: Augustas II; 12 May 1670 – 1 February 1733), also known in Saxony as Frederick Augustus I, was Elector of Saxony from 1697, Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania in the years 1697–1706 and from 1709 until his death in 1733.
- Royal titles
Augustus III was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II. He was the only legitimate son of Augustus II the Strong, and converted to the Roman Catholicism in 1712 to secure his candidacy for the Polish throne. In 1719 he married Maria Josepha, daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, and became Elector of Saxony following his father's death in 1733. Aug
Royal titles in Latin: Augustus tertius, Dei gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniæ, Russiæ, Prussiæ, Masoviæ, Samogitiæ, Kijoviæ, Volhiniæ, Podoliæ, Podlachiæ, Livoniæ, Smolensciæ, Severiæ, Czerniechoviæque, nec non-hæreditarius dux Saxoniæ et princeps elector etc. English translation: August III, by the grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlachia, Livonia, Smolensk, Severia, Chernihiv ...
Augustus was the only legitimate son of Augustus II the Strong, Prince-Elector of Saxony and ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth who belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin. His mother was Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, daughter of ...
On 20 August 1719, Augustus married Maria Josepha Habsburg in Vienna. She was the daughter of the deceased Emperor Joseph I and niece of Charles VI of the Holy Roman Empire, whose coronation young Augustus attended. This marriage wasn't coincidental; Augustus II the Strong orches
Augustus II died suddenly on 1 February 1733, following a Sejm session in Warsaw. Augustus III inherited the Saxon electorate and, but his election to the Polish throne was much more complicated. Shortly before the ailing king died, Prussia, Austria and Russia signed a pact known
Augustus III was a great patron of the arts and architecture. During his reign the Baroque Catholic Church of the Royal Court in Dresden was built, in which he was later buried as one of the few Polish kings buried outside the Wawel Cathedral in Kraków. He greatly expanded ...
In 1732, a French priest named Gabriel Piotr Baudouin founded the first orphanage in Poland, situated in Warsaw's Old Town. The facility was later moved to the nearby Warecki Square, and in 1768 Augustus III decreed that the new institution is to be called Szpital Generalny Dziec
Augustus III was portrayed by Ernst Dernburg in the 1941 film Friedemann Bach.
On 20 August 1719, Augustus married Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria, the eldest child of Joseph I, the Holy Roman Emperor. They had sixteen children, but only fourteen or fifteen are recognized by historians: 1. Frederick Augustus Franz Xavier 2. Joseph Augustus Wilhelm Frederick Franz Xavier Johann Nepomuk 3. Frederick Christian Leopold Johann Georg Franz Xavier, successor to his father as Elector of Saxony 4. Unknown stillborn daughter 5. Maria Amalia Christina Franziska Xaveria Flora Wal
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- Military career
Frederick Augustus III, and a member of the House of Wettin, was the last King of Saxony. Born in Dresden, Frederick Augustus was the eldest son of King George of Saxony and his wife, Maria Anna of Portugal. Frederick Augustus served in the Royal Saxon Army before becoming king, and later was promoted to Generalfeldmarschall. Though well-loved by his subjects, he voluntarily abdicated as king on 13 November 1918, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I. He died in Sibyllenort in Low
Frederick Augustus entered the Royal Saxon Army in 1877 as a second lieutenant, despite being only twelve years old. Given his royal status, he advanced rapidly through the ranks. He served initially with the Royal Saxon 1. Grenadier Regiment Nr. 100. He was promoted to first lieutenant in 1883, captain in 1887, major in 1889 and lieutenant colonel in 1891. By 1891, he was commander of the 1st Battalion of Schützen -Regiment Nr. 108. He was promoted to colonel on 22 September 1892 and took ...
Frederick Augustus married Archduchess Luise, Princess of Tuscany, in Vienna on 21 November 1891. They were divorced in 1903 by the royal decree of the King after she ran away while pregnant with her last child. Luise's flight from Dresden was due to her father-in-law's threatening to have her interned in Sonnestein Mental Asylum for life. Her brother supported her in her wish to escape from Saxony. Emperor Franz-Josef of Austria-Hungary did not recognise the divorce. They had seven children: 1.
- Elector of Saxony and King Designate of Poland
- King of Saxony and Duke of Warsaw
- King of Saxony
- Marriage and issue
Frederick Augustus I was a member of the House of Wettin who reigned as the last Elector of Saxony from 1763 to 1806 and as King of Saxony from 1806 to 1827. He was also Duke of Warsaw from 1807 to 1815. Throughout his political career Frederick Augustus tried to rehabilitate and recreate the Polish state that was torn apart and ceased to exist after the final partition of Poland in 1795. However he did not succeed, for which he blamed himself for the rest of his life. Nevertheless, his efforts
Frederick Augustus was the second son of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony, and Maria Antonia Walpurgis, Princess of Bavaria, of the House of Wittelsbach. Because he was underage at the time of his father's death in 1763, his mother served as Regent until 1768. His uncle Pri
In 1765 Prince Francis Xavier ceded the Polish throne to Stanislas II Augustus on behalf of the underage Elector. However, when a Polish Constitution was ratified by the Polish Sejm Frederick Augustus was named successor to Stanislas. At the same time, the head of the Saxon Royal
In August 1791, Frederick Augustus arranged a meeting with Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II and King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia at Pillnitz Castle. The move was intended partly to offer support for the French monarchy in the face of revolutionary agitation in France. The Declar
Frederick Augustus was proclaimed King of Saxony on 20 December 1806. After the Treaty of Tilsit, which Frederick William III of Prussia and Tsar Alexander I of Russia concluded with Napoleon in July 1807, Frederick Augustus was also named Duke of Warsaw. Although he had rejected
In 1813 during the German Campaign of 1813, Saxony found itself in a more difficult situation than many other warring states. The country was still solidly in Napoleon's grip and at the same time had become the central arena of the war. In the autumn of 1813 at the start of the B
At the deliberations of the Congress of Vienna in 1814 and 1815, Frederick Augustus' position was doomed by his country's difficult geographic position, the changing fortunes of war, a lack of assistance from Austria, and his own vacillatiions. The Prussian-Russian alliance had n
When Frederick returned home to Saxony in July 1815 he was greeted enthusiastically throughout the land. Numerous expressions of loyalty also reached the king from the ceded territories, where the populace regarded the new rulers coolly; shortly thereafter the notion of being "ma
The last twelve years of Frederick Augustus' government passed for the most part quietly. The king's conservative character, which in foreign policy up to 1806 had manifested itself in unconditional loyalty to Saxon interests, hardened even more after the experience of Napoleonic
In Mannheim on 17 January 1769 and again in Dresden on 29 January 1769, Frederick Augustus married the Countess Palatine Amalie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, sister of King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. During their marriage, Amalia gave birth to four children, but only one daughter survived to adulthood: Stillborn child Stillborn child Maria Augusta Nepomucena Antonia Franziska Xaveria Aloysia Stillborn child Frederick Augustus had an illegitimate daughter, born out of an affair with the ...
- Accidental Death
Frederick Augustus II was King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin. He was the eldest son of Maximilian, Prince of Saxony – younger son of the Elector Frederick Christian of Saxony – by his first wife, Caroline of Bourbon, Princess of Parma.
From his birth, it was clear that one day Frederick Augustus would become the ruler of Saxony. His father was the only son of the Elector Frederick Christian of Saxony who left surviving male issue. When the King Frederick Augustus I died and Anton succeeded him as King, Frederic
The July Revolution of 1830 in France marked the beginning of disturbances in Saxony that autumn. The people claimed a change in the constitution and demanded a young regent of the kingdom to share the government with the King Anton. On 1 September the Prince Maximilian renounced
On 6 June 1836, King Anton died and Frederick Augustus succeeded him. As an intelligent man, he was quickly popular with the people as he had been since the time of his regency. The new king solved political questions only from a pure sense of duty. Mostly he preferred to leave t
During a journey in Tyrol, he had an accident in Brennbüchel in which he fell in front of a horse that stepped on his head. On 8 August 1854, he died in the Gasthof Neuner. He was buried on 16 August in the Katholische Hofkirche of Dresden. In his memory, the Dowager Queen Maria arranged to establish the Königskapelle at the accident place, which was consecrated one year later, some of the last members of the Saxon royal family, including Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen, are buried ...
In Vienna on 26 September 1819 and again in Dresden on 7 October 1819, Frederick Augustus married firstly with the Archduchess Maria Caroline of Austria, daughter of Emperor Francis I of Austria. They had no children. In Dresden on 24 April 1833 Frederick Augustus married secondly with the Princess Maria Anna of Bavaria, daughter of the King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. Like his first marriage, this was childless. The musician Theodor Uhlig was an illegitimate son of Frederick Augustus. Witho
Augustus (31 July 1526 – 11 February 1586) was Elector of Saxony from 1553 to 1586.
- Formation and Ascanian rule
- Wettin rule
- Protestant Reformation
- Schmalkaldic War
- Thirty Years' War
The Electorate of Saxony was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356. Upon the extinction of the House of Ascania, it was feoffed to the Margraves of Meissen from the Wettin dynasty in 1423, who moved the ducal residence up the river Elbe to Dresden. After the Empire's dissolution in 1806, the Wettin Electors raised Saxony to a territorially reduced kingdom.
After the dissolution of the medieval Duchy of Saxony, the name Saxony was first applied to a small territory midway along the river Elbe, around the city of Wittenberg, which had formerly belonged to the March of Lusatia. Around 1157 it was held by Albert the Bear, the first Margrave of Brandenburg. When Emperor Frederick Barbarossa deposed the Saxon duke, Henry the Lion in 1180, the Wittenberg lands belonged to Albert's youngest son, Count Bernhard of Anhalt, who assumed the Saxon ducal title.
The Ascanian line of Saxe-Wittenberg became extinct with the death of Elector Albert III in 1422, after which Emperor Sigismund granted the country and electoral privilege upon Margrave Frederick IV of Meissen, who had been a loyal supporter in the Hussite Wars. The late Albert's Ascanian relative, Duke Eric V of Saxe-Lauenburg protested in vain. Frederick, one of the seven Prince-electors, was a member of the House of Wettin, which since 1089 had ruled over the adjacent Margravate of Meissen up
The Protestant movement of the 16th century largely spread under the protection of the Saxon rulers. Ernest's son, Elector Frederick the Wise established in 1502 the University at Wittenberg, where the Augustinian monk, Martin Luther, was appointed professor of philosophy in 1508. At the same time he became one of the preachers at the castle church in Wittenberg. On 31 October 1517, he enclosed in a protest letter to Albert of Brandenburg the Archbishop of Mainz, The Ninety-five Theses against t
Meanwhile, in the Albertine lands Duke Albert's son, George, founder of the Catholic League of Dessau, was a strong opponent of the Lutheran doctrine and had repeatedly sought to influence his Ernestine cousins in favour of the Catholic Church. However, George's brother and successor, Duke Henry IV of Saxony, was finally won over to Protestantism under the influence of his wife, Catherine of Mecklenburg, and thus the Catholic diocese of Meissen came to be abolished. Henry's son and successor, Du
The Thirty Years' War occurred during the reign of Elector John George. In this struggle, the Elector was at first neutral, and for a long time he would not listen to the overtures of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. Not until the Imperial General Johann Tserclaes of Tilly advanced into Saxony did the Elector join the forces of the Swedish Empire. However, after the 1634 Battle of Nördlingen, the Elector concluded the Peace of Prague with Emperor Ferdinand II in 1635. By this treaty ...
Augustus I, Elector of Saxony (b. Freiberg, 31 July 1526 – d. Dresden, 11 February 1586) was Elector of Saxony from 1553 to 1586. First Years . Augustus was born in Freiberg, the youngest child and third (but second surviving) son of Heinrich of Saxony and Katharina of Mecklenburg.