Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and was dissolved following its defeat in the First World War.
- Creation of Austria–Hungary
- Governmental Structure
- World War I
- End of The Empire
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The Ausgleich or compromise of February 1867 created the Empire's dualist structure. The Austrian Empire (1804–67) had lessened in strength and in power. This was because of the Austro–Sardinian War of 1859 and the Austro–Prussian War of 1866. Also, the Hungarian people were not happy with how Vienna treated them. This had been going on for many years and it led to Hungarian separation. This included the Hungarian liberal revolution of 1848–49. Emperor Franz Joseph tried to reach an agreement with the Hungarian nobility. He needed their support to keep the empire together. The Hungarian nobility would not accept anything less than equality between themselves and the Austrian elites.
Hungary and Austria had different parliaments. Each had its own prime minister. The monarch kept the two working together. He had absolute power in theory but very little in reality. The monarch’s central government had charge of the army, navy, foreign policy, and the customs union.
The deaths of Franz Joseph's brother, Maximilian I of Mexico (1867), and his only son, Crown Prince Rudolf, made the Emperor's nephew, Franz Ferdinand, next in line to the crown. On 28 June, 1914, the heir visited the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo. Bosnian Serb militants of the group Mlada Bosna attacked Franz Ferdinand's motorcade and assassinatedhim. Some members of the government, such as Conrad von Hötzendorf had wanted to fight the Serbian nation for many years. The leaders of Austria-Hungary decided to attack Serbia before it could start a revolt. They used the assassination as an excuse. They gave Serbia a list of ten demands called the July Ultimatum.They expected Serbia would not accept. Serbia accepted nine of the ten demands but only partially accepted the other one. Austria-Hungary declared war. These events brought the Empire into conflict with Serbia. Russia moved its army to help Serbia. This set off troop movements on both sides and started World War I.
Near the end of the war, it was understood that the allied powers would win. Part of the empire started declaring independencefrom the monarch. They formed their own countries. The following countries were formed from the former Habsburg lands: 1. Austria 2. Hungary 3. Czechoslovakia 4. Yugoslavia 5. Poland Some Austro-Hungarian lands were also given to Romania and Italy."Distribution of Races in Austria–Hungary" from the Historical Atlasby William R. Shepherd, 1911
The Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified from 1804 to 1867 as the Austrian Empire and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It collapsed following defeat in the First World War. In historiography, the Habsburg Monarchy (of the Austrian branch) is often called "Austria" by metonymy.
Name Caliber Introduced Type 7 cm Gebirgsgeschütz M 75: 66 mm: 1875: Mountain 12 cm Kanone M 80: 120 mm: 1881: Siege 15 cm Kanone M 80: 150 mm: 1881: Siege 18 cm kurze Kanone M 80
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In the Middle Ages, the Duchy of Austria was an autonomous state within the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the House of Habsburg, and the Kingdom of Hungary was a sovereign state outside the empire. In 1526, Hungary was defeated and partially conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
Austrick-Hungary or Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, kent as the Dual Monarchy in Inglis or the k.u.k. (Kaiserlich und königliche; Scots: 'Imperial an Ryal') Monarchie in German an aa, wis a monarchic union atween the crouns o the Austrian Empire an the Kinrick o Hungary in Central Europe.
- Ports and Locations
- Naval Aviation: The K.U.K. Seefliegerkorps
- Problems Affecting The Navy
- Notable Personnel
- Ranks and Rates of The Navy
- Senior Leadership
- Naval Ensign
- in Popular Culture
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The k.u.k. Kriegsmarine was not formally established until the 18th century, but its origins can be traced back to 1382, with the incorporation of Trieste into the Duchy of Austria. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Trieste became a maritime trade rival to the Republic of Venice, which occupied the Adriatic port city for intermittent periods between 1283 and 1372. Under the terms of the Peace of Turin in 1381, Venice renounced its claim to Trieste and the leading citizens of Trieste petitio...
Establishment of the Austrian Navy
The Austrian Navy was finally established in 1786, with Emperor Joseph II purchasing two cutters in Ostend, each armed with 20 guns, and sending them to Trieste. Joseph II also introduced Austria's Naval Ensign, which consisted of a red-white-red standard with the crown of the Archduchy of Austria on the left. Prior to this, Austrian ships flew the yellow and black flag of the Habsburg Monarchy. Joseph II's Marineflaggeremained the naval ensign of Austria, and later Austria-Hungary, until the...
Modernising the Navy
Following the Congress of Vienna and the 1815 Treaty of Paris, Austria's coastline was restored. Under the conditions of the Congress of Vienna, the former Austrian Netherlands were transferred to the newly created United Kingdom of the Netherlands, while Austria received Lombardy-Venetia as compensation. These territorial changes gave Austria five ships of the line, two frigates, one corvette, and several smaller ships which had been left in Venice by the French during the Napoleonic Wars. T...
The home port of the Austro-Hungarian Navy was the Seearsenal (naval base) at Pola (now Pula, Croatia); a role it took over from Venice, where the early Austrian Navy had been based. Supplementary bases included: the busy port of Trieste and the natural harbour of Cattaro (now Kotor, Montenegro). Both Trieste and Pola had major shipbuilding facilities. Pola's naval installations contained one of the largest floating drydocks in the Mediterranean. The city of Pola was also the site of the central church of the navy "Stella Maris" (k.u.k. Marinekirche "Stella Maris"), of the Austro-Hungarian Naval Observatory and the empire's naval military cemetery (k.u.k. Marinefriedhof). In 1990, the cemetery was restored after decades of neglect by the communist regime in Yugoslavia. The Austro-Hungarian Naval Academy (k.u.k. Marine-Akademie) was located in Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia). Trieste was also the headquarters of the merchant line Österreichischer Lloyd (founded in 1836 and, later, Lloyd...
In August 1916, the Imperial and Royal Naval Air Corps or k.u.k. Seeflugwesen was established. In 1917 it was rechristened the k.u.k. Seefliegerkorps. Its first aviators were naval officers who received their initial pilot training at the airfields of Wiener Neustadt in Lower Austria, where the Theresian Military Academy is also located. They were first assigned for tours aboard the Tegetthoff-class battleships. Later, the k.u.k. Seefliegerkorps also served at the following airfields in Albania and southern Dalmatia: Berat, Kavaja, Tirana, Scutari and Igalo. They also had airfields at Podgorica in Montenegro. 1. Flik 1- Igalo from June - November 1918 2. Flik 6 - Igalo from November 1915 - January 1916 2.1. - Scutari from January 1916 - June 1917 2.2. - Tirana from July 1917 - June 1918 2.3. - Banja from June - July 1918 2.4. - Tirana from July - September 1918 2.5. - Podgorica from September - November 1918 3. Flik 13 - Berat from August - September 1918 3.1. - Kavaja from Septembe...
When it came to its financial and political position within the Empire, the Austrian (and later Austro-Hungarian) Navy was a bit of an afterthought for most of the time it existed. One reason was that sea power was never a priority of the Austrian foreign policy and that the Navy itself was relatively little known and supported by the public. Activities such as open days and naval clubs were unable to change the sentiment that the Navy was just something "expensive but far away". Another point was that naval expenditures were for most of the time overseen by the Austrian War Ministry, which was largely controlled by the Army, the only exception being the period before the Battle of Lissa. The Navy was only able to draw significant public attention and funds during the three short periods it was actively supported by a member of the Imperial Family. The Archdukes Friedrich (1821–1847), Ferdinand Maximilian (1832–1867), and Franz Ferdinand (1863–1914), each with a kee...Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, Viceadmiral of the mid-19th century, known for his role in the Battle of Lissa (1866). He was probably the most famous Austrian sailor, later also Commander-in-Chief of the...
1. Matrose 2. Seaman First Class (Matrose 1. klasse) 3. Able seaman (Marsgast) 4. Leading rate 5. Petty officer 3rd Class 6. Petty officer 2nd Class 7. Petty officer 1st Class
1. Sea aspirant 2. Sea cadet 3. Sea ensign
1. Frigate ensign (until 1860) 2. Ship of the line Ensign(until 1908) 3. Corvette lieutenant(reserve officer's rank) 4. Frigate lieutenant(from 1908) 5. Ship-of-the-line lieutenant 6. Corvette captain 7. Frigate captain 8. Ship-of-the-line captain 9. Counter admiral 10. Vice admiral 11. Admiral 12. Grand admiral
Commanders-in-Chief of the Navy
(in German Oberkommandant der Marine. From March 1868 the incumbents of this position were styled Marinekommandant) 1. Hans Birch Dahlerup, VAdm. (February 1849–August 1851) 2. Franz Graf Wimpffen, VAdm., (August 1851–September 1854) 3. Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria, VAdm. (September 1854–1861) 4. Ludwig von Fautz, VAdm. (1861–March 1865) 5. Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, VAdm. (March 1868–April 1871) 6. Friedrich von Pöck, Adm. (April 1871–November 1883) 7. Maximilian Daublebsky von Ster...
Commanders-in-Chief of the Fleet
(in German Flottenkommandant) 1. Anton Haus, Adm./GAdm (July 1914–February 1917) 2. Maximilian Njegovan, Adm. (February 1917–February 1918) 3. Miklós Horthy, KAdm./VAdm. (February 1918–November 1918)
Heads of the Naval Section at the War Ministry
(in German Chef der Marinesektion at the Kriegsministerium) 1. Ludwig von Fautz, VAdm. (March 1865–April 1868) 2. Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, VAdm.(March 1868–April 1871) 3. Friedrich von Pöck, Adm. (October 1872–November 1883) 4. Maximilian Daublebsky von Sterneck, Adm. (November 1883–December 1897) 5. Hermann von Spaun, Adm. (December 1897–October 1904) 6. Rudolf Montecuccoli, Adm. (October 1904–February 1913) 7. Anton Haus, Adm./GAdm. (February 1913–February 1917) 8. Karl Kailer von Kaltenfels...
Until Emperor Joseph II authorized a naval ensign on 20 March 1786, Austrian naval vessels used the yellow and black imperial flag. The flag, formally adopted as Marineflagge (naval ensign) was based on the colours of the Archduchy of Austria. It served as the official flag also after the Ausgleich in 1867, when the Austrian navy became the Austro-Hungarian Navy. During World War I, Emperor Franz Josephapproved of a new design, which also contained the Hungarian arms. This flag, officially instituted in 1915, was however little used, and ships continued displaying the old Ensign until the end of the war. Photographs of Austro-Hungarian ships flying the post-1915 form of the Naval Ensign are therefore relatively rare.
British author John Biggins wrote a series of four serio-comic historical novels concerning the Austro-Hungarian Navy and a fictional hero named Ottokar Prohaska, although genuinely historical individuals, such as Georg Ludwig von Trapp and Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austriamake appearances. Published by McBooks Press, the novels are: 1. A Sailor of Austria: In Which, Without Really Intending to, Otto Prohaska Becomes Official War Hero No. 27 of the Habsburg Empire 2. The Emperor's Coloured Coat: In Which Otto Prohaska, Hero of the Habsburg Empire, Has an Interesting Time While Not Quite Managing to Avert the First World War 3. The Two-Headed Eagle: In Which Otto Prohaska Takes a Break as the Habsburg Empire's Leading U-boat Ace and Does Something Even More Thanklessly Dangerous 4. Tomorrow the World: In which Cadet Otto Prohaska Carries the Habsburg Empire's Civilizing Mission to the Entirely Unreceptive Peoples of Africa and Oceania
- From the Compromise of 1867 to the World War
- Command Structure
- Austro-Hungarian Army in July 1914
The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army, the Imperial Austrian Landwehr, and the Royal Hungarian Honvéd. In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian Kingdom and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new...
The major decisions 1867-1895 were made by Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen, who was the cousin of the Emperor Franz Joseph and his leading advisor in military affairs. According to historians John Keegan and Andrew Wheatcroft: He was a firm conservative in all matters, militar
In 1868, the number of active-duty troops in the army was 355,000, and the total could be expanded to 800,000 upon mobilization. However, this was significantly less than the European powers of France, the North German Confederation and Russia, each of which could field more than
Following the 1867 constitutional arrangements, the Reichsrat was dominated by German Liberals, who generally regarded the army as a relic of feudalism. In Budapest, legislators were reluctant to authorize funds for the joint army but were generous with the Hungarian branch of th
Austria-Hungary had a complex military structure. The country had three main distinct ground forces. As a union the Monarchy had a common government of three ministers. The Imperial Minister of War had authority over the Common Army, the Navy, and, shortly before and during WWI, the newly established independent Air Troops.
Official designations were as follows: 1. regiments of the common army were designated Imperial and Royal, in which Imperial stands for the Kaiser of Austria, who was also King of Hungary. 2. Austrian Landwehr regiments were Imperial-Royal; Hungarian: császári/királyi 3. Hungarian Honvéd regiments were called Royal Hungarian for the Kaiser's title of Apostolic King of Hungary. Within the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary the monarch was also King of Croatia-Slavonia, this was however ...
The Landsturm consisted of men aged 34 to 55 who belonged to the Austria k.k. Landsturm and the Hungarian k.u. Landsturm. The Landsturm formed 40 regiments totaling 136 battalions in Austria and 32 regiments totaling 97 battalions in Hungary. The Landsturm was a reserve force intended to provide replacements for the first line units. However, the Landsturm provided 20 brigades who took to the field with the rest of the army.
The Standschützen were originally rifle guilds and rifle companies that had been formed in the 15th and 16th centuries, and were involved time and again in military operations within the borders of the Austrian County of Tyrol. A Standschütze was a member of a Schützenstand, into which he was enrolled,[A. 2] which automatically committed him to the voluntary, military protection of the state of Tyrol. In effect they were a type of Tyrolean local militia or home guard.
The Austrian Empire was the main beneficiary from the Congress of Vienna and it established an alliance with Britain, Prussia, and Russia forming the Quadruple Alliance. The Austrian Empire also gained new territories from the Congress of Vienna, and its influence expanded to the north through the German Confederation and also into Italy.
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