The Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances refers to three identical political agreements signed at the OSCE conference in Budapest, Hungary on 5 December 1994 to provide security assurances by its signatories relating to the accession of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
Das Budapester Memorandum war Vorbedingung der Unterzeichnung und Ratifizierung des Atomwaffensperrvertrags und des Atomteststoppvertrags. Bis 1996 wurden alle Kernwaffen der früheren Sowjetunion nach Russland gebracht, das als „ Fortsetzerstaat “ der UdSSR das Recht auf den Besitz von Atomwaffen hat.
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A Budapesti Memorandum elnevezésű nemzetközi szerződést 1994. december 5 -én, Budapesten írták alá az Európai Biztonsági és Együttműködési Szervezet (EBESZ) itt megtartott konferenciáján.
The Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances is an international treaty signed on 5 December 1994, provided security assurances by its signatories in connection to Ukraine accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
According to the memorandum, Russia, the U.S., and the UK confirmed, in recognition of Ukraine becoming party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponsand in effect abandoning its nuclear arsenal to Russia, that they would: 1. Respect Ukrainian independence and sovereignty within its existing borders. 2. Refrain from the threat or use of force against Ukraine. 3. Refrain from using economic pressure on Ukraine in order to influence its politics. 4. Seek United Nations Security Councilaction if nuclear weapons are used against Ukraine. 5. Refrain from the use of nuclear arms against Ukraine. 6. Consult with one another if questions arise regarding these commitments.
Under the political agreement, the signatories offered Ukraine "security assurances" in exchange for its adhesion to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The memorandum bundled together a set of assurances that Ukraine already held from the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) Final Act, United Nations Charter and Non-Proliferation Treaty.The Ukrainian government nevertheless found it politically valuable to have these assurances in a Ukraine-specific document. The Budapest Memorandum was negotiated as a political agreement. It refers to assurances, not defined, but less than a military guarantee of intervention. According to Stephen MacFarlane, a professor of international relations "It gives signatories justification if they take action, but it does not force anyone to act in Ukraine." In the U.S. neither the George H. W. Bush administration nor the Clinton administration was prepared to give a military commitment to Ukraine, nor did they bel...
1994 Crimean crisis
In 1990, Meshkov was elected as a deputy to the Supreme Council of Crimea (the republic's parliament). There he became the co-founder of the RDK Party (Republican movement of Crimea). In 1994, he stood at the helm of the electoral bloc "Rossiya" for the republican presidential elections, where he easily defeated in the second round of elections Mykola Bahrov who ran as an independent. At that time, Mykola Bahrovwas the head of the Supreme Council of Crimea. During the second round of the 1994...
2003 Tuzla Island dispute
In 2003, Russian construction efforts were seen as an attempt to annex Tuzla Island off the Crimean coast of Ukraine.[dead link]
2014 Crimean crisis
In February 2014, unidentified troops seized or blockaded various airports, as well as other strategic sites throughout Crimea. Official Ukrainian sources have said that the troops are Russian, attached to the Russian Black Sea Fleet stationed in Crimea, likely placing Russia in violation of the Budapest Memorandum. The Russian Foreign Ministry has confirmed the movement of armoured units attached to the Black Sea Fleet in Crimea, but asserts that they are acting within the scope of the vario...
Budapešťské memorandum je označení mezinárodní dohody podepsané 5. prosince 1994 v maďarském hlavním městě Budapešti ukrajinským prezidentem Leonidem Kučmou, ruským prezidentem Borisem Jelcinem, americkým prezidentem Billem Clintonem a britským premiérem Johnem Majorem.
Memorandumul de la Budapesta De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă Memorandumul de la Budapesta este un tratat internațional semnat la 5 decembrie 1994 la Budapesta, Ungaria între Ucraina, Statele Unite, Marea Britanie și Rusia.
The Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure, or Budapest Treaty, is an international treaty signed in Budapest, Hungary, on April 28, 1977. It entered into force on August 19, 1980, and was later amended on September 26, 1980.
Budapest Memorandum Main article: Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances On December 5, 1994 the leaders of Ukraine, Russia, Britain and the United States signed a memorandum to provide Ukraine with security assurances in connection with its accession to the NPT as a non-nuclear weapon state.