Camel is an English progressive rock band formed in Guildford, Surrey, in 1971. Led by founder-member guitarist Andrew Latimer, they have produced fourteen original studio albums and fourteen singles, plus numerous live albums and DVDs.
- In popular culture
Camel is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in the United States and by Japan Tobacco outside the U.S. Most current Camel cigarettes contain a blend of Turkish tobacco and Virginia tobacco. Winston-Salem, North Carolina, the city where R. J. Reynolds was founded, is nicknamed "Camel City" because of the brand's popularity.
In 1913, Richard Joshua "R. J." Reynolds, founder of the company that still bears his name, innovated the packaged cigarette. Prior cigarette smokers had rolled their own, which tended to obscure the potential for a national market for a pre-packaged product. Reynolds worked to develop a more appealing flavor, creating the Camel cigarette, which he so named because it used Turkish tobacco in imitation of then-fashionable Egyptian cigarettes. Reynolds priced them below competitors, and within a y
The photograph used for the Camel design was taken on September 29, 1913, by Andrew Jackson Farrell, a Winston-Salem based photographer. Farrell and Mr. R. C. Haberkern of the Reynolds Tobacco Company went to the Barnum & Bailey Circus to photograph a camel and a dromedary to use
The reverse sides of many packs or boxes of Camel cigarettes display variations of the following text: Turkish tobacco is the world's smoothest, most aromatic leaf. Blending it with more robust domestic tobaccos is the secret to Camel's distinctive flavor and world-class smoothne
In an apparent attempt to counter Lucky Strike's popular "It's Toasted" campaign, Camel went in the opposite direction by boasting that Camel was a "fresh" cigarette "never parched or toasted." In 1936, Camel used the slogan "For digestion's sake – smoke Camels." The ads ...
The image of the dromedary on the pack has been the object of some controversy. According to a legend, the artist who drew the image of the dromedary was Belgian and did not like the marketing manager of Camel so he introduced a design of Manneken Pis. When examined closely, the shadows on the upper part of the left leg define the image of this statue. They also claim that you can see the image of a baboon or another type of monkey on the back of the dromedary, some even say that you can see eag
Camel was a sponsor of various Formula 1 teams over the years, either appearing as a major or a minor sponsor. Camel sponsored the AGS team in 1989. The logos were placed on the side of the cars, and on the drivers' helmets. In races where tobacco sponsorship was forbidden, the C
Camel sponsored the "Camel Team" in the late 1980s to early 1990s in the Paris-Dakar Rally.
Camel organised the Camel Trophy, a vehicle-oriented competition that was held annually between 1980 and 2000. It was best known for its use of Land Rover vehicles over challenging terrain.
The Camel pack is featured prominently in Tom Robbins's 1980 novel Still Life with Woodpecker, billed as "a love story that happens inside a pack of cigarettes". The book's artwork is modeled after a pack of Camels, and the package artwork and history are discussed extensively in
Country singer Ferlin Husky recorded a song titled Eli The Camel which is about a camel on the front of a cigarette packet. The cover of the album Mirage by the band Camel resembles the cigarette packaging. A pack of Camel Filters appears among other paraphernalia on the cover of
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Camel (band), an English progressive rock band formed in 1971 Camel, their first (1973) studio album; Television "The Camel" (Parks & Recreation), an episode of the television show Parks and Recreation; Sports. Camel spin, a figure skating move; Connecticut College Camel, the mascot of Connecticut College
Camel is the first studio album by English progressive rock band Camel, released on MCA Records in February 1973. Camel Studio album by Camel Released28 February 1973 Recorded15–26 August 1972 at Morgan Studios, London GenreProgressive rock Length39:17 LabelMCA ProducerDave Williams Camel chronology Camel Mirage Professional ratings Review scores Source Rating AllMusic
By August 1972, Camel were signed to MCA Records. They quickly entered the studio to record their first self-titled album, Camel. A collection of individual songs, chiefly from Andrew Latimer and Peter Bardens, the album was greeted with muted success and MCA did not take an option for a second album. By then, the group had acquired the management team of Geoff Jukes and Max Hole of Gemini Artists and had moved to Decca Records, where they would remain for the next 10 years.
Camel gigged 9 months of the year and firmly established a reputation for their live sound in the UK, Switzerland, Belgium, and the Netherlands. They shared the stage with other artists such as Stackridge, Barclay James Harvest, Gong, Hawkwind, Pink Fairies, Global Village Trucking Company, and Spyro Gyra.
In their ranking of the band's 14 albums, Prog Sphere placed Camel at #4, calling the song "Never Let Go" the real highlight on it. They wrote "this debut is not just another example of a stepping stone, but an accomplished work in its own right. While not as good as the group’s later albums, it is a most excellent start and an essential Camel release, as well as a very good starting point to get into their wonderful music."
The album was remastered and reissued in 2002 on London Records with two bonus tracks: the single version of "Never Let Go" and a live version of "Homage to the God of Light", a staple of the band's early shows. A studio version of the latter had appeared on keyboard player Peter Bardens' debut solo album The Answer in 1970.
- Natural habitat
- Life history
- Relationship to humans
The Bactrian camel, also known as the Mongolian camel or domestic Bactrian camel, is a large even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of Central Asia. It has two humps on its back, in contrast to the single-humped dromedary camel. Its population of two million exists mainly in the domesticated form. Their name comes from the ancient historical region of Bactria. Domesticated Bactrian camels have served as pack animals in inner Asia since ancient times. With its tolerance for cold, drought, and h
The wild Bactrian camel was first described by Nikolay Przhevalsky in the late 19th century and has now been established as a distinct species from the Bactrian camel. Zoological opinion nowadays tends to favour the idea that C. bactrianus and C. dromedarius are descendants of tw
The Bactrian camel is the largest mammal in its native range and is the largest living camel. Shoulder height is from 180 to 230 cm, head-and-body length is 225–350 cm, and the tail length is 35–55 cm. At the top of the humps, the average height is 213 cm. Body mass can range from 300 to 1,000 kg, with males often being much larger and heavier than females. Its long, wooly coat varies in colour from dark brown to sandy beige. A mane and beard of long hair occurs on the neck and throat ...
These camels are migratory, and their habitat ranges from rocky mountain massifs to flat arid desert, stony plains, and sand dunes. Conditions are extremely harsh—vegetation is sparse, water sources are limited and temperatures are extreme, ranging from as low as −40 °C in winter to 40 °C in summer. The camels' distribution is linked to the availability of water, with large groups congregating near rivers after rain or at the foot of the mountains, where water can be obtained from ...
Bactrian camels are exceptionally adept at withstanding wide variations in temperature, ranging from freezing cold to blistering heat. They have a remarkable ability to go without water for months at a time, but when water is available they may drink up to 57 liters at once. When well fed, the humps are plump and erect, but as resources decline, the humps shrink and lean to the side. When moving faster than a walking speed, they pace, by stepping forwards with both legs on the same side. Speeds
The Bactrian camel is thought to have been domesticated sometime before 2500 BC in Northeast Afghanistan or southwestern Turkestan. The dromedary camel is believed to have been domesticated between 4000 BC and 2000 BC in Arabia. As pack animals, these ungulates are virtually unsurpassed, able to carry 170–250 kg at a rate of 47 km per day, or 4 km/h over a period of four days. Furthermore, Bactrian camels are frequently ridden, especially in desertified areas. In ancient Sindh, for ...
- Variations and synonyms
- Traditional use in natural language
- History of modern technical use
- Current usage in computing
- Readability studies
Camel case is the practice of writing phrases without spaces or punctuation, indicating the separation of words with a single capitalized letter, and the first word starting with either case. Common examples include "iPhone" and "eBay". It is also sometimes used in online usernames such as "johnSmith", and to make multi-word domain names more legible, for example in advertisements. Camel case is often used as a naming convention in computer programming, but is an ambiguous definition due to the
The original name of the practice, used in media studies, grammars and the Oxford English Dictionary, was "medial capitals". Other synonyms include: camelBack notation or CamelCaps CapitalizedWords or CapWords for upper camel case in Python compoundNames Embedded caps HumpBack notation InterCaps or intercapping mixedCase for lower camel case in Python PascalCase for upper camel case Smalltalk case WikiWord or WikiCase The earliest known occurrence of the term "InterCaps" on Usenet is in an April
The use of medial capitals as a convention in the regular spelling of everyday texts is rare, but is used in some languages as a solution to particular problems which arise when two words or segments are combined. In Italian, pronouns can be suffixed to verbs, and because the hon
In the scholarly transliteration of languages written in other scripts, medial capitals are used in similar situations. For example, in transliterated Hebrew, ha'Ivri means "the Hebrew person" or "the Jew" and b'Yerushalayim means "in Jerusalem". In Tibetan proper names like rLob
Medial capitals are traditionally used in abbreviations to reflect the capitalization that the words would have when written out in full, for example in the academic titles PhD or BSc. In German, the names of statutes are abbreviated using embedded capitals, e.g. StGB for Strafge
The first systematic and widespread use of medial capitals for technical purposes was the notation for chemical formulae invented by the Swedish chemist Jacob Berzelius in 1813. To replace the multitude of naming and symbol conventions used by chemists until that time, he propose
Since the early 20th century, medial capitals have occasionally been used for corporate names and product trademarks, such as 1. DryIce Corporation marketed the solid form of carbon dioxide as "Dry Ice", thus leading to its common name. 2. CinemaScope and VistaVision, rival wides
In the 1970s and 1980s, medial capitals were adopted as a standard or alternative naming convention for multi-word identifiers in several programming languages. The precise origin of the convention in computer programming has not yet been settled. A 1954 conference proceedings oc
The use of medial caps for compound identifiers is recommended by the coding style guidelines of many organizations or software projects. For some languages this practice is recommended by the language developers or by authoritative manuals and has therefore become part of the la
Camel case is used in some wiki markup languages for terms that should be automatically linked to other wiki pages. This convention was originally used in Ward Cunningham's original wiki software, WikiWikiWeb, and can be activated in most other wikis. Some wiki engines such as Ti
The NIEM registry requires that XML data elements use upper camel case and XML attributes use lower camel case. Most popular command-line interfaces and scripting languages cannot easily handle file names that contain embedded spaces. Therefore, users of those systems often resor
Camel case has been criticised as negatively impacting readability due to the removal of spaces and uppercasing of every word. A 2009 study comparing snake case to camel case found that camel case identifiers could be recognised with higher accuracy among both programmers and non-programmers, and that programmers already trained in camel case were able to recognise those identifiers faster than underscored snake-case identifiers. A 2010 follow-up study, under the same conditions but using an imp
- Milk yields and nutritional value
- Camel milk products
Camel milk has different nutritional characteristics from cow milk, but the proportions of nutrients can be highly variable based on a number of factors, including type and age of camel, climate, what it eats, and milking method. It can be used to make products such as yoghurt and ice cream, but is not so easily turned into butter or cheese.
Desert nomad tribes use camel milk, which can be readily made into yoghurt, as a staple food, and can live for up to a month on nothing but camel milk.
After being introduced to Australia in the 1840s to assist with exploration and trade in the harsh interior before being overtaken by modern communications and transport methods, the feral camel population has grown to in excess of 1.2m, the world's largest. Australia's first cam
As of 2014 the United States had an imported population of 5,000 camels. The cost of producing camel's milk is considerably higher than that of producing cow's milk. In the United States, female camels are very rare; they mature slowly and can be bred safely only after age four.
Both milk yields and the nutritional composition of camel milk are affected by many factors, including "forage quantity and quality, watering frequency, climate, breeding age, parity, milking frequency, calf nursing, milking method, health, and reproductive status".
Camel milk can readily be made into yogurt, but can only be made into butter if it is soured first, churned, and a clarifying agent is then added.