Catalonia has its own representative and distinctive national symbols such as: The flag of Catalonia, called the Senyera, is a vexillological symbol based on the heraldic emblem of Counts of Barcelona and the coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon, which consists of four red stripes on a golden background. It has been an official symbol since the ...
Catalonia was first settled during the Middle Palaeolithic era. Like the rest of the Mediterranean side of the Iberian Peninsula, the area was occupied by the Iberians and several Greek colonies were established on the coast before the Roman conquest. It was the first area of Hispania conquered by the Romans.
Catalonia has three official languages: Catalan, Spanish and Occitan. The last is spoken in a small region of northern Catalonia that borders France and is known in Occitan as Val d'Aran. The capital of Catalonia is the Barcelona, the home of the Olympic Games in 1992. and is on the Mediterranean Coast.
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Today, the term Principat (Principality) is used primarily to refer to the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain, as distinct from the other Catalan Countries, and usually including the historical region of Roussillon in southern France.
- Festivals and celebrations
- Dance and music
- Culinary traditions
- Other events
There are quite a number of festivals and traditions in Catalonia. While most are of ancient origin, certain traditions are of relatively recent introduction. There are also some that are common to the whole Catalan society, but others are relevant only to a particular location. Generally, locals welcome outsiders to share with them in their celebration.
The correfocs, in which "devils" play with fire close the onlookers, is one of the most striking of the Catalan festive events. The devils are not considered the incarnation of evil; they are sprightly and festive characters, dancing to the sound of drums and the traditional gralla, while they set off their fireworks.
Among the musical traditions, there is the very special music of the cobles, the wind bands that play sardanes. The sardana is a circular, open dance, that originated in the Empordà region and the Pyrenees, and is now danced in many squares and streets all over Catalonia.
There are a number of Catalan culinary traditions, some of them coincide with a religious festival, like cooking a big Christmas Day meal on 25 December which includes escudella i carn d'olla. St. Stephen's Day on 26 December is a holiday in Catalonia. It is celebrated right after Christmas, with another big meal including canelons stuffed with the ground remaining meat of the previous day. These events are usually celebrated along with kin and close friends.
Mushroom hunting is a popular activity in Catalonia, where a mushroom hunter is called boletaire. There is a tradition of going to hunt mushrooms as a family or group in the fall, after the rains marking the end of the summer season.
- Irreligion, atheism and agnosticism
Religion in Catalonia is diversified. Historically, virtually all the population was Christian, specifically Catholic, but since the 1980s there has been a trend of decline of Christianity and parallel growth of irreligion and other religions. The secularisation of Catalan culture started in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but conscious disaffiliation from Catholicism has also been driven since the 1980s by the religious authorities' association with Francoist Spain. According to the mo
The Baháʼí Faith has nearly one thousand members and nine centres in Catalonia as of 2014. The first Baháʼí group in Catalonia was established in Barcelona in 1949, while the first formal centre was inaugurated in Terrassa, in the Vallès Occidental, in 1962. The ...
1.3% of the Catalans identify as Buddhists as of 2016. Buddhism has 68 temples in Catalonia as of the same year, holding their services in Catalan, Spanish, Chinese and Tibetan language, reflecting the ethnic origins of the Buddhist community. The majority of Buddhists, though, a
61.9% of the population of Catalonia identify as Christians as of 2016. Catholicism 58.0% of the Catalans identify as Catholics as of 2016. There are 6,701 Catholic churches as of the same year. Orthodox Christianity and Eastern Catholicism 0.9% of the Catalans identify as Orthod
27.9% of the Catalans identify as irreligious as of 2016. Of them, 16.0% are atheists and 11.9% are agnostics.
Revolutionary Catalonia (21 July 1936 – 1939) was the part of Catalonia (autonomous region in northeast Spain) controlled by various anarchist, communist, and socialist trade unions, parties, and militias of the Spanish Civil War period.
- Summary of chapters
- The Crystal Spirit
Homage to Catalonia AuthorGeorge Orwell CountryUnited Kingdom LanguageEnglish GenreNon-fiction, political PublisherSecker and Warburg Publication date April 1938 Media typePrint Pages368 248 Preceded byThe Road to Wigan Pier Followed byComing Up for Air Homage to Catalonia is George Orwell's personal account of his experiences and observations fighting for the POUM militia of the Republican army during the Spanish Civil War. The war was one of the defining events of his political outlook and a s
Orwell served as a private, a corporal and—when the informal command structure of the militia gave way to a conventional hierarchy in May 1937—as a lieutenant, on a provisional basis, in Catalonia and Aragon from December 1936 until June 1937. In June 1937, the leftist political party with whose militia he served was declared an illegal organisation, and Orwell was consequently forced to flee. Having arrived in Barcelona on 26 December 1936, Orwell told John McNair, the Independent ...
The following summary is based on a later edition of the book which contains some amendments that Orwell requested: two chapters describing the politics of the time were moved to appendices. Orwell felt that these chapters should be moved so that readers could ignore them if they wished; the chapters, which became appendices, were journalistic accounts of the political situation in Spain, and Orwell felt these were out of place in the midst of the narrative.
Contemporary reviews of the book were mixed. Notably positive reviews came from Geoffrey Gorer in Time and Tide, and from Philip Mairet in the New English Weekly. Geoffrey Gorer concluded, "Politically and as literature it is a work of first-class importance." Philip Mairet observed, "It shows us the heart of innocence that lies in revolution; also the miasma of lying that, far more than the cruelty, takes the heart out of it." Hostile notices came from The Tablet, where a critic wondered why Or
Homage to Catalonia was commercially unsuccessful, only selling 638 copies, but Barcelona under the Anarchists would remain with Orwell. "No one who was in Spain during the months when people still believed in the revolution will ever forget that strange and moving experience. It has left something behind that no dictatorship, not even Franco's, will be able to efface." In the words of a recent biographer, Gordon Bowker, "the people that had effaced that reality, the Soviet Communists, now had a
In the opening lines of the book, Orwell describes an Italian militiaman he met at the Lenin Barracks and to whose memory Orwell would dedicate a poem "nearly two years later, when the war was visibly lost". The poem was included in Orwell's 1942 essay "Looking Back on the Spanish War", published in New Road in 1943. The closing phrase of the poem, "No bomb that ever burst shatters the crystal spirit", was later taken by George Woodcock for the title of his Governor General's Award-winning criti
- International reactions
The Catalan declaration of independence was a resolution that was passed by the Parliament of Catalonia on 27 October 2017, which declared the independence of Catalonia from Spain and the founding of an independent Catalan Republic. The declaration did not receive recognition from the international community. On October 10th, in the aftermath of the 1 October 2017 Catalan independence referendum, a document establishing Catalonia as an independent republic was signed by the members of Catalonia'
The Law on the Referendum on Self-determination of Catalonia contained the provision that, in case of an outcome in favour of independence, independence was to be declared within 48 hours after all votes were counted. Catalan President Carles Puigdemont confirmed this on October
On 27 October 2017, a resolution based on the "Declaration of the representatives of Catalonia" declaring the independence of Catalonia was voted in the Parliament and was approved with 70 votes in favor, 10 against, and 2 blank votes. Fifty-three MPs from the opposition refused
On 30 October, Parliament Speaker Carme Forcadell called off a parliamentary meeting scheduled for the next day because the chamber "had been dissolved", thus acknowledging Mariano Rajoy's order. Later that day, it transpired that Puigdemont and part of his dismissed cabinet had
On 2 November, the judge Carmen Lamela of the Spanish National Court ordered that eight members of the deposed Catalan government including the ex-vice-president Oriol Junqueras be remanded in custody without bail. Additionally, Santi Vila, who was the Business Minister that resigned over the unilateral declaration of independence, was granted a €50,000 bail. The prosecution requested issuing European Arrest Warrants for Puigdemont and four other members who left Catalonia for Brussels ...
Catalan independence has received no recognition from any sovereign nation. However, the partially recognized, non-UN-member states Abkhazia and South Ossetia claimed they were willing to offer formal recognition should they receive a request to do so from the Catalan government.
- Not effective
- 27 October 2017
- 10 October 2017
- Effectively unenforceable under Article 155 of Spanish Constitution