Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians. It is based on canonical scripture, and sacred tradition, as interpreted authoritatively by the magisterium of the Catholic Church.
The theology on the body is a broad term for Catholic teachings on the human body.. The dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, defined in Pope Pius XII's 1950 apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus, is one of the most recent developments in the Catholic theology of the body.
Catholic moral theology is a major category of doctrine in the Catholic Church, equivalent to a religious ethics.Moral theology encompasses Roman Catholic social teaching, Catholic medical ethics, sexual ethics, and various doctrines on individual moral virtue and moral theory.
Catholicism is the traditions and beliefs of Catholic Churches. It refers to their theology, liturgy, morals and spirituality. The term usually refers to churches, both western and eastern, that are in full communion with the Holy See. In 2012, there were more than 1.1 billion Catholics worldwide. This makes up more than 17% of the world ...
- Patristic period (about A.D. 100–800)
- Middle Ages (800–1500)
- Modern times (1500–1900)
The history of Catholic dogmatic theology divides into three main periods: the patristic, the medieval, the modern.
The Fathers of the Church are honoured by the Church as her principal theologians. Tertullian died a Montanist, and Origen showed a marked leaning towards Hellenism. Some of the Fathers, e.g. St. Cyprian and Gregory of Nyssa, were unorthodox on individual points; the former in regard to the baptism of heretics, the latter in the matter of apocatastasis. It was not so much in the catechetical schools of Alexandria, Antioch, and Edessa as in the struggle with the great heresies of the age that pat
The beginnings of Scholasticism may be traced back to the days of Charlemagne. Thence it progressed in ever-guickening development to the time of Anselm of Canterbury, Bernard of Clairvaux, and Peter the Lombard, and onward to its full growth in the Middle Ages. The most brilliant period of Scholasticism embraces about 100 years, and with it are connected the names of Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, and Duns Scotus. From the beginning of the fourteenth century,
The Protestant Reformation brought about a more accurate definition of important Catholic articles of faith. From the period of the Renaissance the revival of classical studies gave new vigour to exegesis and patrology, while the Reformation stimulated the universities which had remained Catholic, especially in Spain and in the Netherlands, to intellectual research. Spain, which had fallen behind during the Middle Ages, now came boldly to the front. The Sorbonne of Paris regained its lost presti
Catholic theology of sexuality, like Catholic theology in general, is drawn from natural law, canonical scripture, divine revelation, and sacred tradition, as interpreted authoritatively by the magisterium of the Catholic Church.
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The Roman Catholic Church has often held mortification of the flesh (literally, "putting the flesh to death"), as a worthy spiritual discipline. The practice is rooted in the Bible: in the asceticism of the Old and New Testament saints, and in its theology, such as the remark by Saint Paul, in his Epistle to the Romans, where he states: "If you live a life of nature, you are marked out for ...
Catholic theology teaches that the contemporary Catholic Church is the continuation of this early Christian community established by Jesus. Christianity spread throughout the early Roman Empire, despite persecutions due to conflicts with the pagan state religion.
Roman Catholic theology enumerates seven sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation (Chrismation), Eucharist (Communion), Penance (Reconciliation)(Confession), Matrimony (Marriage), Holy Orders (ordination to the diaconate, priesthood, or episcopate) and Anointing of the Sick (before the Second Vatican Council generally called Extreme Unction).