Charles IX, also Carl ( Swedish: Karl IX; 4 October 1550 – 30 October 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. He was the youngest son of King Gustav I and his second wife, Margaret Leijonhufvud, brother of Eric XIV and John III, and uncle of Sigismund who was king of both Sweden and Poland. By his father's will he got, by way of appanage, the Duchy of Södermanland, which included the provinces of Närke and Värmland; but he did not come into actual possession of them till ...
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Charles IX, also Carl(Swedish: Karl IX; 4 October 1550 – 30 October 1611), was King of Swedenfrom 1604 until his death. He was the youngest son of King Gustav Iand his second wife, Margaret Leijonhufvud, brother of Eric XIVand John III, and uncle of Sigismundwho was king of both Sweden and Poland.
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In 1568 he was the real leader of the rebellion against Eric XIV. However, he took no part in the designs of his brother John III against the unhappy king after his deposition. Charles's relations with John were always more or less strained. He had no sympathy with John's High-Church tendencies on the one hand, and he sturdily resisted all the king's endeavours to restrict his authority as Duke of Södermanland on the other. The nobility and the majority of the Riksdag of the Estates supported John. However, in his endeavours to unify the realm, and Charles had consequently (1587) to resign his pretensions to autonomy within his duchy. But, steadfast Calvinist as he was, on the religious question he was immovable. The matter came to a crisis on the death of John III in 1592. The heir to the throne was John's eldest son, Sigismund III Vasa, already king of Poland and a devoted Catholic. The fear that Sigismund might re-catholicize the land alarmed the Protestant majority in Sweden—par...
Finally, the Riksdag at Linköping, 24 February 1604 declared that Sigismund abdicated the Swedish throne, that duke Charles was recognized as the sovereign. He was declared king as Karl IX (anglicized as Charles IX). Charles's short reign was one of uninterrupted warfare. The hostility of Poland and the breakup of Russia involved him in overseas contests for the possession of Livonia and Ingria, the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611) and the Ingrian War, while his pretensions to claim Lapplandbrought upon him a war with Denmark in the last year of his reign. In all these struggles, he was more or less unsuccessful, owing partly to the fact that he and his forces had to oppose superior generals (e.g. Jan Karol Chodkiewicz and Christian IV of Denmark) and partly to sheer ill-luck. Compared with his foreign policy, the domestic policy of Charles IX was comparatively unimportant. It aimed at confirming and supplementing what had already been done during his regency. He did not officially be...
Four and a half years later Charles IX died at Nyköping, 30 October 1611 when he was succeeded by his seventeen-year-old son Gustavus Adolphus, who had participated in the wars. As a ruler, he is the link between his great father and his still greater son. He consolidated the work of Gustav I, the creation of a great Protestant state; he prepared the way for the erection of the Protestant empire of Gustavus Adolphus.
He married, firstly, Anna Marie of Palatinate-Simmern (1561–1589), daughter of Louis VI, Elector Palatine (1539–1583) and Elisabeth of Hesse(1539–1584). Their children were: 1. Margareta Elisabeth (1580–1585) 2. Elisabeth Sabina (1582–1585) 3. Louis (1583–1583) 4. Catherine (1584–1638), married a prince of the Palatinate Zweibrücken, becoming mother of Charles X Gustav. 5. Gustav (1587–1587) 6. Maria (1588–1589) In 1592 he married his second wife Christina of Holstein-Gottorp (1573–1625), daughter of Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp (1526–1586) and Christine of Hesse(1543–1604), and first cousin of his previous wife. Their children were: 1. Christina (1593–1594) 2. Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden(Gustav II Adolf) (1594–1632) 3. Maria Elizabeth (1596–1618), married her first cousin Duke John, youngest son of John III of Sweden 4. Charles Philip(1601–1622) He also had a son with his mistress, Karin Nilsdotter: 1. Carl Carlsson Gyllenhielm (1574–1650), Field Marshal
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bain, Robert Nisbet (1911) "Charles IX., king of Sweden" in Chisholm, Hugh Encyclopædia Britannica(11th ed.) Cambridge Un..."Charles IX. King of Sweden". New International Encyclopedia. 1905."Charles IX., king of Sweden". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.
Lutheran. Signature. Charles IX, also Carl ( Swedish: Karl IX; 4 October 1550 – 30 October 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. He was the youngest son of King Gustav I and his second wife, Margaret Leijonhufvud, brother of Eric XIV and John III, and uncle of Sigismund who was king of both Sweden and Poland.
Charles XII, sometimes Carl XII (Swedish: Karl XII) or Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach.
Charles IX, also Carl (Swedish: Karl IX; 4 October 1550 – 30 October 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. He was the youngest son of King Gustav I and his second wife, Margaret Leijonhufvud, brother of Eric XIV and John III, and uncle of Sigismund who was king of both Sweden and Poland.
In 1575, he gave his permission for the remaining Catholic convents in Sweden to start receiving novices again. From time to time he was also at odds theologically with his younger brother Duke Charles of Sudermannia (afterwards Charles IX of Sweden), who had Calvinist