Charles XII, sometimes Carl XII (Swedish: Karl XII) or Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder.
- Royal title
Charles, like all kings, was styled by a royal title, which...
- Great Northern War
Around 1700, the monarchs of Denmark–Norway, Saxony and...
While in the trenches close to the perimeter of the fortress...
- Personal life
Charles never married and fathered no children of whom...
- Royal title
Charles XII (Swedish: Karl XII) was the king of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He was born on June 27, 1682. During his time as a king, he tried to expand Sweden's empire. He took part in the Nordic War (1700-1721), in which his enemies were Denmark, Poland and Russia.
People also ask
Was Denmark an ally of Sweden?
What happened to King Charles X of Sweden?
Who is King Charles IX of Sweden?
What is the nationality of Sweden?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Charles XII (French: Histoire de Charles XII) is a historical work by the French historian, philosopher, and writer Voltaire about Charles XII, king of Sweden. It was first published in 1731.
Charles XII, sometimes Carl XII (Swedish: Karl XII) or Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach.
Charles XII(Swedish: Karl XII) is a 1925 Swedish silenthistorical filmdirected by John W. Bruniusand starring Gösta Ekman, Bengt Djurbergand Augusta Lindberg. Because of its long running time of nearly six hours, it was released in two separate parts.
Charles XI (Swedish: Karl XI, also Charles IV and Carl; 4 December [ O.S. 24 November] 1655 – 15 April [ O.S. 5 April] 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death, in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire (1611–1718). He was the only son of King Charles X Gustav of Sweden and Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp.
- Early life
- Reign of Gustav III
- Reign of Gustav IV Adolf
Charles XIII, or Carl XIII,, was King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway from 1814 to his death. He was the second son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great. Though known as King Charles XIII in Sweden, he was actually the seventh Swedish king by that name, as Charles IX had adopted his numeral after studying a fictitious history of Sweden. In Norway he is known as Charles II.
Prince Charles was placed under the tutelage of Hedvig Elisabet Strömfelt and then Ulrica Schönström. He was appointed grand admiral when he was but few days old. He was described as a good dancer at the amateur theatre of the royal court. Reportedly he was not very close to his mother. The Queen preferred her youngest children, Sophie Albertine and Frederick Adolf. Charles was, however, his father's favorite, and similar to him in personality. He was also described as close to his ...
After the death of his father in 1771, when his brother the crown prince was abroad, the Caps once again attempted to use him against his brother, now King Gustav III of Sweden, and his mother Louisa Ulrika used this in order to have her own rights as a dowager queen respected by the Caps. Upon the departure of his mother to Prussia, and the return of his brother, however, Gustav III managed to win him to his side. In 1772 he cooperated in the Revolution of 1772 of his elder brother, King Gustav
On the assassination of Gustav III in 1792, Charles acted as regent of Sweden till 1796 on behalf of his nephew, King Gustav IV, who was a minor when his father was shot in the Stockholm opera. Gustav III had designated him regent in his earlier will. When he was dying, he altered the will, and while still appointing Charles regent of his minor son, he was no longer to rule absolute, but restricted by a government consisted of the supporters of Gustav III. After the death of the monarch, however
On 13 March 1809, those who had dethroned Gustav IV Adolf appointed Charles regent, and he was finally elected king by the Riksdag of the Estates. By the time he became king, he was 60 years old and prematurely decrepit. In November 1809, he was affected by a heart attack, and was not able to participate in government. The new constitution which was introduced also made his involvement in politics difficult. A planned attempt to enlarge the royal power in 1809–10 was not put into effect ...
He married his cousin Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, on 7 July 1774 in Stockholm. Both of their children died in infancy
- Royal Title
- Great Northern War
- The Death of Charles XII
- Scientific Contributions
- in Popular Culture
- External Links
Charles, like all kings, was styled by a royal title, which combined all his titles into one single phrase. This was: We Charles, by the Grace of God King of Sweden, the Goths and the Vends, Grand Prince of Finland, Duke of Scania, Estonia, Livonia and Karelia, Lord of Ingria, Duke of Bremen, Verden and Pomerania, Prince of Rügen and Lord of Wismar, and also Count Palatine by the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Count of Zweibrücken–Kleeburg, as well as Duke of Jülich, Cleve and Berg, Count of Veldenz, Spanheim and Ravensberg and Lord of Ravenstein. The fact that Charles was crowned as Charles XII does not mean that he was the 12th king of Sweden by that name. Swedish kings Erik XIV (1560–1568) and Charles IX (1604–1611) gave themselves numerals after studying a mythological history of Sweden. He was actually the 6th King Charles. The non-mathematic numbering tradition continues with the current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, being counted as the equivalent of Charles XVI.
Around 1700, the kings of Denmark–Norway, Saxony (ruled by elector August II of Poland, who was also the king of Poland-Lithuania) and Russia united in an alliance against Sweden, largely through the efforts of Johann Reinhold Patkul, a Livonian nobleman gone traitor through the "great reduction" of Charles XI stripping much of the nobility of lands and properties. In late 1699 Charles sent a minor detachment to reinforce his brother-in-law Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp, who was attacked b...
While Charles won several decisive battles in the Commonwealth and ultimately secured the coronation of his ally Stanisław Leszczyński and the surrender of Saxony, the Russian Tsar Peter the Great embarked on a military reform plan that improved the Russian army, using the effectively organized Swedes and other European standards for role model. Russian forces managed to penetrate Ingria and established a new city, Saint Petersburg, there. Charles planned an invasion of the Russian heartland,...
Exile in the Ottoman Empire
The Turks initially welcomed the Swedish king, who managed to provoke a war between the Ottomans and the Russians. His expenses during his long stay in the Ottoman Empire were covered from the Ottoman state budget, as part of the fixed assets (Demirbaş in Turkish), hence his nickname Demirbaş Şarl (Fixed Asset Charles) in Turkey. Demirbaş, the Turkish word for fixed asset, is literally ironhead (demir = iron, baş = head), which is the reason why this nickname has often been translated as Iron...
The exact circumstances around Charles' death are unclear. Despite multiple investigations of the battlefield, Charles' skull and his clothes, it is not known where he was hit exactly, and whether the shot came from the ranks of the enemy or from his own men. A popular but unproven theory is that the murder was an act of conspiracy made by his sister's (Ulrika Eleonora) husband, Fredrik, who was crowned Fredrik I.It is believed that the murder was committed by Fredrik’s aide-de-camp, André Sicre, who confessed to the murder during a state of delirium brought about by a fever and later recanted the statement. There are several theories as to how Charles died, though none can be given with any certainty. Although there were many people around the king at the time of his death, there were no witnesses at the actual moment he was struck. The most likely theory is that Charles was killed by the Danes, as he was within easy reach of the Danish guns. Other possibilities exist and are more...
Exceptional for abstaining from alcohol and women, he felt most comfortable during warfare. Contemporaries report of his seemingly inhuman tolerance for pain and his utter lack of emotion. His brilliant campaigning and startling victories brought his country to the pinnacle of her prestige and power, posthumously earning him the epithet "last of the Vikings," although the Great Northern War resulted in Sweden's defeat and the end of her empire within years of his own death. Charles' death marked the end of autocratic kingship in Sweden, and the subsequent Age of Liberty saw a shift of power from the monarch to the parliament of the estates. Historians of the late 18th and early 19th centuries viewed Charles' death as the result of an aristocratic plot, and Gustav IV Adolf, the king who refused to settle with Napoleon Bonaparte, "identified himself with Charles as a type of the righteous man struggling with iniquity" (Roberts). Throughout the 19th century's romantic nationalism Charl...
Apart from being a monarch, the King's interests included mathematics, and anything that would be beneficial to his warlike purposes. He is attributed as having invented an octal numeral system, which he considered more suitable for war purposes because all the boxes used for materials such as gunpowder were cubic. According to a report by contemporary scientist Emanuel Swedenborg, the King had sketched down a model of his thought on a piece of paper and handed it to him at their meeting in Lund in 1716. The paper was reportedly still in existence a hundred years later, but has since been lost. Several historians of science suspect that either the multi-talented Emanuel Swedenborg or the brilliant inventor Christopher Polhem– also present at the meeting in Lund – may have been the true inventor behind this feat, or at least a main contributor.
Charles fascinated many in his time. Voltaire, who could be very sardonic, stopped in front of Charles and took off his hat. Samuel Johnson, a devoted anti-militarian,wrote in his poem "The Vanity of Human Wishes": Swedish author Frans G. Bengtsson and Professor Ragnhild Hatton have written biographies of Charles XII of Sweden, as did Voltaire in 1731. Charles XII figures quite prominently in Robert Massie's magnum opus "Peter the Great".
A character based on Charles XII plays a major role in The Age of Unreason, a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. A number of albums started by Ultima Thule, later including other artists were named "Carolus Rex". In May 2012 the Swedish power metal band Sabaton released an album named “Carolus Rex”. Al Stewart's song "The Coldest Winter in Memory" deals primarily with Charles's military campaign and defeat by Peter the Great. The song is on the out of print 1996 album "Seemed Like a Good idea at the Time" and the live 2010 album "Uncorked".
Works related to at Wikisource 1. Charles XII: on the centenary of his death 1818The original Swedish text by Esaias Tegner, as well as parallel translations by J.E.D.Bethune (1848) and Charles Harrison-Wallace (1998) and a comment by the latter. 2. The Great Northern War and Charles XII 3. Charles XII and his Life and Death (Swedish) 4. BBC News item: Who killed Sweden's Warrior King? 5. Timeline of 1700–1720 in Sweden
Charles XII attempted to invade Norway 1716; however, he was shot dead at Fredriksten fortress in 1718. The Swedes were not militarily defeated at Fredriksten, but the whole structure and organization of the Norwegian campaign fell apart with the king's death, and the army withdrew.
- related to: Charles XII of Sweden wikipedia
topsearch.co has been visited by 1M+ users in the past month
justfindinfo.com has been visited by 100K+ users in the past month