Classical Latin is the form of Latin language recognized as a literary standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. It was used from 75 BC to the 3rd century AD, when it developed into Late Latin .
- Philological constructs
"Good Latin" in philology is known as "classical" Latin...
- Authors of the Golden Age
Teuffel's definition of the "First Period" of Latin was...
- Philological constructs
Latin (latīnum, [laˈt̪iːnʊ̃] or lingua latīna, [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈt̪iːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium.
Classical Latin is the form of Latin that was used by the ancient Romans in official Roman record-keeping, the Roman military, and Latin literature. Its use helped the Golden Age of Latin literature during the 1st century BC and the early 1st century AD.
In Classical Latin, the coronal sibilant /s/ was likely unvoiced in all positions. In Old Latin, single /s/ between vowels was pronounced as voiced but had changed to /r/ by rhotacism by the time of Classical Latin, as in gerō /ˈɡe.roː/ as compared with gestus /ˈɡes.tus/.
- Current Usage
- Writing Latin
- After The Fall of The Roman Empire
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Latin is called a dead language because no one speaks Latin as a first language anymore. Even though it is a dead language, it is not an extinct languagebecause it is still used in daily life by some people. In fact, many people still study it in school. Latin is still useful because it shows how society and the language used to work. Knowing Latin makes it easier to learn the Romance languages. People still read Latin classics such as the poems of Virgil, the memoirs of Caesar and the speeches of Cicero. Also, Latin is widely used as an international auxiliary language, notably in the Catholic Church, and by biologists when describing and naming new species. Latin is still used in taxonomy to give scientific names to species and groups of species of living things. Some terms used in medicine to name parts of the body (such as bones) and diseasesare also written in Latin.
There are three types of Latin: Classical Latin, Vulgar Latin, and Ecclesiastical Latin. Classical Latin was used by the educated Romans and is still studied around the world. Vulgar Latin was the more common spoken variety used by the common Romans and was learned by the peoples conquered by the Romans. Ecclesiastical Latin is common in Italian schools and still used by the Roman Catholic Church. Latin was the most important language in most of Europe in the Middle Ages. It was taught in many European schools, and all universities used Latin as the teaching language. Latin began to lose its importance in the Reformation, but it was still often used by authors of scientific books and encyclopedias. Until about 1900 many universities accepted dissertationswritten in Latin. As people from other regions of Europe learned Vulgar Latin during Roman conquests, each region developed its own language, a simplified form of Latin. Those languages are called Romance languages, and they are sti...
Latin has a similar inflection structure to Ancient Greek but a different alphabet. Latin has seven different noun cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative and locative. The vocative case is almost always the same as the nominative case; however, if the nominative ends in -us, it changes to -e, and if the nominative ends in -ius, it changes to -i. The locative takes the form of the dative. Latin nouns are declined, or changed, according to how they are used in the sentence. A noun can be declined five different ways. These ways are called declensions. The declensions are numbered 1 through 5 (first declension, second declension etc), each having different endings that identify the noun's declension. When a noun is declined, twelve forms are made, two for each of the noun cases (the locative is omitted). A similar thing is done to verbs, called conjugation. When a verb is conjugated, six forms are made. There are five factors that can change a verb: person,...
Latin used to be written on plates of wax. There was little space and so words were run together, with no space between words. Sometimes papyrus was used, but this was expensive. Punctuation was an ancient idea but came to Latin later. Lowercase letters (small letters) are relatively modern inventions. The Roman alphabet was derived from the Etruscan language. The following is the introduction to the Metamorphoses by Ovid (Book 1, lines 89–100); it describes the Golden Age.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, many people still used Latin. Scholars such as Thomas Aquinas, Petrarch, Erasmus, Luther, Copernicus, Descartes and Newton wrote in Latin. As an example, Hugo Grotius published his De jure belli ac pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) in 1625, which is one of the bases of international law.Ainsworth, Robert (1830). A new abridgment of Ainsworth's Dictionary, English and Latin, by J. Dymock.Post-Classical Latin (including Medieval and Neo-Latin) Archived 2011-01-13 at the Wayback MachineBeginners' Latin on http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/Glossarium Anglico-Latinum Archived 2012-11-13 at the Wayback Machinehaving many modern words
- Comparison with Classical Latin
- Language materials
- Current use
- Church Latin kana
Ecclesiastical Latin, also called Church Latin, Liturgical Latin or Italianate Latin, is a form of Latin initially developed to discuss Christian thought and later used as a lingua franca by the Medieval and Early Modern upper class of Europe. It includes words from Vulgar Latin and Classical Latin re-purposed with Christian meaning. It is less stylized and rigid in form than Classical Latin, sharing vocabulary, forms, and syntax, while at the same time incorporating informal elements which had
The use of Latin in the Church started in the late fourth century with the split of the Roman Empire after Emperor Theodosius in 395. Before this split, Greek was the primary language of the Church as well as the language of the eastern half of the Roman Empire. Following the spl
At first there was no distinction between Latin and the actual Romance vernacular, the former being just the traditional written form of the latter. For instance, in ninth-century Spain ⟨saeculum⟩ was simply the correct way to spell, meaning 'century'. The writer would ...
The use of Latin in the Western Church continued into the Early modern period. One of Martin Luther's tenets during the Reformation was to have services and religious texts in the common tongue, rather than Latin, a language that at the time, many did not understand. Protestants
There are not many differences between Classical Latin and Church Latin. One can understand Church Latin knowing the Latin of classical texts, as the main differences between the two are in pronunciation and spelling, as well as vocabulary. In many countries, those who speak Latin for liturgical or other ecclesiastical purposes use the pronunciation that has become traditional in Rome by giving the letters the value they have in modern Italian but without distinguishing between open and close "E
The complete text of the Bible in Latin, the revised Vulgate, appears at Nova Vulgata - Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio. New Advent gives the entire Bible, in the Douay version, verse by verse, accompanied by the Vulgate Latin of each verse. In 1976, the Latinitas Foundation was established by Pope Paul VI to promote the study and use of Latin. Its headquarters are in Vatican City. The foundation publishes an eponymous quarterly in Latin. The foundation also published a 15,000-word Italian-Latin Lexic
Latin remains the official language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Until the 1960s and still later in Roman colleges like the Gregorian, Catholic priests studied theology using Latin textbooks and the language of instruction in many seminaries was also Latin, which was seen as the language of the Church Fathers. The use of Latin in pedagogy and in theological research, however, has since declined. Nevertheless, canon law requires for seminary formation to provide for
In the hymnbook used in the Catholic Church in Japan, there are some special kana characters. To represent the /l/ sound in the Latin language, the R column kana letters with ゜ are used.
Influences Christian Latin. Medieval Latin had an enlarged vocabulary, which freely borrowed from other sources. It was heavily influenced by the language of the Vulgate, which contained many peculiarities alien to Classical Latin that resulted from a more or less direct translation from Greek and Hebrew; the peculiarities mirrored the original not only in its vocabulary but also in its ...