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  1. Masuria - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masuria

    Masuria (Polish: Mazury (help · info), German: Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) is a region in northeastern Poland, famous for its 2,000 lakes. Masuria occupies much of the Masurian Lake District. Administratively, it is part of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship (administrative area/province). Its biggest city, often regarded as its capital, is Ełk.

    • 10,000 km² (4,000 sq mi)
    • Poland
    • 500,000
  2. Masurians - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masurians

    Masuria became part of the Kingdom of Prussia at the Kingdom's founding in 1701, and part of the Prussian-led German Empire at the Empire's founding in 1871. Masurians referred to themselves in the 19th century as "Polish Prussians" or as "Staroprusaki" (Old Prussians).

  3. Masuria - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

    es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masuria

    Masuria o Mazuria (en polaco, Mazury; en alemán, Masurenland) fue una región del sur de la Prusia Oriental, poblada desde el siglo XII principalmente por eslavos mazovios de los cuales recibió el nombre, aunque luego fue incorporada a Alemania y pasó a formar parte de Polonia tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

    • Old Prussians
    • Teutonic Order
    • Ducal Prussia
    • Kingdom of Prussia
    • German Empire
    • Polish Masuria — The Działdowo County
    • Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany
    • Masuria After World War II
    • Modern Masuria

    Be­fore the 13th cen­tury, the ter­ri­tory was in­hab­ited by the Old Prus­sians also called Baltic Prus­sians, a Baltic eth­nic group that lived in Prus­sia (the lands of the south­east­ern coastal re­gion of the Baltic Sea around the Vis­tula La­goon and the Curon­ian La­goon). The ter­ri­tory later called Ma­suria was then known as Galin­dia and was prob­a­bly a pe­riph­eral, deeply forested and lightly pop­u­lated area. Its in­hab­i­tants spoke a lan­guage now known as Old Pruss­ian and had their own mythol­ogy. Al­though a 19th-cen­tury Ger­man po­lit­i­cal en­tity bore their name, they were not Ger­mans. They were con­verted to Roman Catholi­cism in the 13th cen­tury, after con­quest by the Knights of the Teu­tonic Order. Es­ti­mates range from about 170,000 to 220,000 Old Prus­sians liv­ing in the whole of Prus­sia around 1200. The wilder­ness was their nat­ural bar­rier against at­tack by would-be in­vaders. Dur­ing the North­ern Cru­sades of the early 13th cen­tury, the Old...

    After the Order's ac­qui­si­tion of Prus­sia, Poles (or more specif­i­cally, Mazurs, that is in­hab­i­tants of the ad­ja­cent re­gion of Ma­zovia) began to set­tle in the south­east­ern part of the con­quered re­gion. Ger­man, Dutch, Flem­ish, and Dan­ish[citation needed] colonists en­tered the area af­ter­ward, from the north­west. The num­ber of Pol­ish set­tlers grew sig­nif­i­cantly again in the be­gin­ning of the 15th cen­tury, es­pe­cially after the first and the sec­ond treaties of Thorn, in 1411 and 1466 re­spec­tively, fol­low­ing the Thir­teen Years' War and the final de­feat of the order.Later as­sim­i­la­tion of the Ger­man set­tlers as well as the Pol­ish im­mi­grants and na­tive in­hab­i­tants cre­ated the new Pruss­ian iden­tity, al­though the sub­re­gional dif­fer­ence be­tween the Ger­man- and Slavic-speak­ing part re­mained. West­ern half of the province was ceded to Poland, and the grand mas­ter (still rul­ing, among oth­ers, also Ma­suria) be­came a vas­sal of th...

    The sec­u­lar­iza­tion of the Teu­tonic Order in Prus­sia and the con­ver­sion of Al­bert of Prus­sia to Lutheranism in 1525 brought Prus­sia in­clud­ing the later called Ma­suria area to Protes­tantism. The Pol­ish lan­guage pre­dom­i­nated due to the many im­mi­grants from Ma­zovia, who ad­di­tion­ally set­tled the east­ern, till then vir­gin part of (later Ma­suria) in the 16th cen­tury. While the coun­try­side was in­hab­ited by Protes­tant Pol­ish-speak­ers, who took refuge, the cities con­sti­tuted Ger­man mixed with Pol­ish-speak­ing pop­u­la­tion. The an­cient Old Pruss­ian lan­guage sur­vived in parts of the coun­try­side until the early 18th century[citation needed]. Areas that had many Pol­ish lan­guage speak­ers were known as the Pol­ish Departments. In 1656, dur­ing the Bat­tle of Prostki, the forces of Pol­ish-Lithuan­ian Com­mon­wealth, in­clud­ing 2,000 Tatar raiders, beat the al­lied Swedish and Bran­den­burg army cap­tur­ing Bogusław Radziwiłł. The war re­sulted in...

    After the death of Al­bert Fred­er­ick, Duke of Prus­sia in 1618, his son-in-law John Sigis­mund, Mar­grave of Bran­den­burg, in­her­ited the duchy (in­clud­ing Ma­suria), com­bin­ing the two ter­ri­to­ries under a sin­gle dy­nasty and form­ing Bran­den­burg-Prus­sia. The Treaty of Wehlau re­voked the sov­er­eignty of the King of Poland in 1657. The re­gion be­came part of the King­dom of Prus­sia with the coro­na­tion of King Fred­er­ick I of Prus­sia in 1701. Ma­suria be­came part of the newly cre­ated ad­min­is­tra­tive province of East Prus­sia upon its cre­ation in 1773. The name Ma­suria began to be used of­fi­cially after new ad­min­is­tra­tive re­forms in the King­dom after 1818.[citation needed] Ma­suri­ans re­ferred to them­selves dur­ing that pe­riod as "Pol­ish Prus­sians" or as "Staro­prusaki" (Old Prussians)Ma­suri­ans showed con­sid­er­able sup­port for the Pol­ish up­ris­ing in 1831, and main­tained many con­tacts with Russ­ian-held areas of Poland be­yond the bor­de...

    After the Uni­fi­ca­tion of Ger­many into the Ger­man Em­pire in 1871, the Pol­ish lan­guage was re­moved from schools in 1872, as part of Otto von Bis­marck's Cul­ture War. He also sought to erad­i­cate the use of the Pol­ish lan­guage and cul­ture in the Ger­man Em­pire. After 1871 Ma­suri­ans who ex­pressed sym­pa­thy for Poland were deemed "na­tional trai­tors" by Ger­man na­tion­al­ists (this in­creased es­pe­cially after 1918) Ac­cord­ing to Ste­fan Berger after 1871 the Ma­suri­ans in the Ger­man Em­pire were seen in a view that while ac­knowl­edg­ing their "ob­jec­tive" Pol­ish­ness (in terms of cul­ture and lan­guage) they felt "sub­jec­tively" Ger­man and thus should be tightly in­te­grated into Ger­man na­tion-state; to Berger this ar­gu­ment went di­rectly against the Ger­man na­tion­al­ist de­mands in Al­sace where Al­sa­tians were de­clared Ger­man de­spite their "sub­jec­tive" choice. Berger con­cludes that such the ar­gu­ments of Ger­man na­tion­al­ists were sim­ply...

    The re­gion of Działdowo (Sol­dau), where ac­cord­ing to the of­fi­cial Ger­man cen­sus of 1910 eth­nic Ger­mans formed a mi­nor­ity of 37.3%, was ex­cluded from the plebiscite and be­came part of Poland. This was rea­soned with plac­ing the rail­way con­nec­tion be­tween War­saw and Danzig(Gdańsk), of vital im­por­tance to Poland as it con­nected cen­tral Poland with its sea­coast, com­pletely under Pol­ish sov­er­eignty. Działdowo it­self counted about 24,000 peo­ple of which 18,000 were Masurians Ac­cord­ing to the mu­nic­i­pal ad­min­is­tra­tion of Rybno, after World War I Poles in Działdowo be­lieved that they will be quickly joined with Poland, they or­gan­ised se­cret gath­er­ings dur­ing which the issue of re­join­ing Pol­ish state with help of Pol­ish mil­i­tary was discussed.Ac­cord­ing to the Rybno ad­min­is­tra­tion most ac­tive Poles in that sub­re­gion in­cluded Jóżwiakowscy, Wo­jnowscy, Grzeszc­zowscy fam­i­lies work­ing under the guid­ance of politi­cian Leon Wo­jnow...

    Ma­suria was the only re­gion of Ger­many di­rectly af­fected by the bat­tles of World War I. Dam­aged towns and vil­lages were re­con­structed with the aid of sev­eral twin towns from west­ern Ger­many like Cologne to Nei­den­burg, Frank­furt to Lötzen and even Vi­enna to Or­tels­burg. How­ever Ma­suria was still largely agrar­ian-ori­ented and suf­fered from the eco­nomic de­cline after World War I, ad­di­tion­ally badly af­fected by the cre­ation of the Pol­ish Cor­ri­dor, which raised freight costs to the tra­di­tional mar­kets in Germany.The later im­ple­mented Osthilfe had only a minor in­flu­ence on Ma­suria as it priv­i­leged larger es­tates, while Ma­surian farms were gen­er­ally small.[clarification needed] The in­ter­war pe­riod was char­ac­terised by on­go­ing Ger­man­i­sa­tion poli­cies, in­ten­si­fied es­pe­cially under the Nazis In the 1920s Ma­suria re­mained a heart­land of con­ser­vatism with the Ger­man Na­tional Peo­ple's Party as strongest party. The Nazi Party...

    Ac­cord­ing to the Ma­surian In­sti­tute the Ma­surian mem­bers of re­sis­tance against Nazi Ger­many who sur­vived the war, be­came ac­tive in 1945 in the re­gion, work­ing in Ol­sz­tynin co­op­er­a­tion with new state au­thor­i­ties in ad­min­is­tra­tion, ed­u­ca­tion and cul­tural affairs Ger­man au­thor An­dreas Kossert de­scribes the post-war process of "na­tional ver­i­fi­ca­tion" as based on an eth­nic racism which cat­e­gorised the local pop­u­lace ac­cord­ing to their al­leged eth­nic background. A Pol­ish-sound­ing last name or a Pol­ish-speak­ing an­ces­tor was suf­fi­cient to be re­garded as "au­tochtho­nous" Polish.In Oc­to­ber 1946 37,736 per­sons were "ver­i­fied" as Pol­ish cit­i­zens while 30,804 re­mained "un­ver­i­fied". A cen­tre of such "un­ver­i­fied" Ma­suri­ans was the dis­trict of Mrągowo (Sens­burg), where in early 1946 out of 28,280 per­sons, 20,580 were "un­ver­i­fied", while in Oc­to­ber, 16,385 still re­fused to adopt Pol­ish citizenship. How­ever even...

    In mod­ern Ma­suria the na­tive pop­u­la­tion has vir­tu­ally disappeared. Ma­suria was in­cor­po­rated into the voivode­ship sys­tem of ad­min­is­tra­tion in 1945. In 1999 Ma­suria was con­sti­tuted with neigh­bour­ing Warmia as a sin­gle ad­min­is­tra­tive province through the cre­ation of the Warmian-Ma­surian Voivode­ship.[citation needed] The Ma­surian Szczytno-Szy­many In­ter­na­tional Air­port gained in­ter­na­tional at­ten­tion as press re­ports al­leged the air­port to be a so-called "black site" in­volved in the CIA's net­work of ex­tra­or­di­nary ren­di­tions.

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  5. Masurian Lake District - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masurian_Lake_District

    The Masurian Lake District or Masurian Lakeland (Polish: Pojezierze Mazurskie; German: Masurische Seenplatte) is a lake district in northeastern Poland within the geographical region of Masuria, in the past inhabited by Masurians who spoke the Masurian dialect.

    • Poland
  6. German exonyms (Masuria) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_exonyms_(Masuria)

    This is a list of German language place names in Poland, now exonyms for towns and villages in the Masuria Region of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship This list is incomplete ; you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources .

  7. Masúria – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

    pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masúria

    Masúria (em polonês/polaco: Mazury) é uma área na região nordeste da Polônia, famosa pelo seus lagos e florestas.Juntamente com o Kaliningrado russo, mais ao norte e uma pequena secção da Lituânia, a região costumava ser uma parte da Prússia e da província da Prússia Oriental, um enclave alemão entre as guerras mundiais.

  8. Masuria – Wikipedia

    fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masuria

    Masuria on alue Puolan koillisosassa. Se ulottuu noin 290 kilometriä Veiksel-joelta itään Liettuan vastaiselle rajalle asti. Alueen pinta-ala on noin 52 000 km². Siellä on noin kaksituhatta järveä. Alue on harvaan asuttua ja siitä on tullut suosittu lomakohde. Ennen toista maailmansotaa Masuria oli osa Saksalle kuulunutta Itä-Preussia.

    • 52 000 km²
  9. Masuria - Wikipedia, a enciclopedia libre

    gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masuria

    Masuria ou Mazuria [1] (en polaco Mazury, en alemán Masurenland) é unha antiga rexión do sur da Prusia Oriental, poboada desde o século XII principalmente por eslavos mazovios dos cales recibiu o nome, aínda que logo foi incorporada a Alemaña, pasando a formar parte de Polonia tras a Segunda Guerra Mundial

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