Masuria (Polish: Mazury (help · info), German: Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) is a region in northeastern Poland, famous for its 2,000 lakes. Masuria occupies much of the Masurian Lake District. Administratively, it is part of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship (administrative area/province). Its biggest city, often regarded as its capital, is Ełk.
- 10,000 km² (4,000 sq mi)
Masuria became part of the Kingdom of Prussia at the Kingdom's founding in 1701, and part of the Prussian-led German Empire at the Empire's founding in 1871. Masurians referred to themselves in the 19th century as "Polish Prussians" or as "Staroprusaki" (Old Prussians).
Masuria o Mazuria (en polaco, Mazury; en alemán, Masurenland) fue una región del sur de la Prusia Oriental, poblada desde el siglo XII principalmente por eslavos mazovios de los cuales recibió el nombre, aunque luego fue incorporada a Alemania y pasó a formar parte de Polonia tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
- Old Prussians
- Teutonic Order
- Ducal Prussia
- Kingdom of Prussia
- German Empire
- Polish Masuria — The Działdowo County
- Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany
- Masuria After World War II
- Modern Masuria
Before the 13th century, the territory was inhabited by the Old Prussians also called Baltic Prussians, a Baltic ethnic group that lived in Prussia (the lands of the southeastern coastal region of the Baltic Sea around the Vistula Lagoon and the Curonian Lagoon). The territory later called Masuria was then known as Galindia and was probably a peripheral, deeply forested and lightly populated area. Its inhabitants spoke a language now known as Old Prussian and had their own mythology. Although a 19th-century German political entity bore their name, they were not Germans. They were converted to Roman Catholicism in the 13th century, after conquest by the Knights of the Teutonic Order. Estimates range from about 170,000 to 220,000 Old Prussians living in the whole of Prussia around 1200. The wilderness was their natural barrier against attack by would-be invaders. During the Northern Crusades of the early 13th century, the Old...
After the Order's acquisition of Prussia, Poles (or more specifically, Mazurs, that is inhabitants of the adjacent region of Mazovia) began to settle in the southeastern part of the conquered region. German, Dutch, Flemish, and Danish colonists entered the area afterward, from the northwest. The number of Polish settlers grew significantly again in the beginning of the 15th century, especially after the first and the second treaties of Thorn, in 1411 and 1466 respectively, following the Thirteen Years' War and the final defeat of the order.Later assimilation of the German settlers as well as the Polish immigrants and native inhabitants created the new Prussian identity, although the subregional difference between the German- and Slavic-speaking part remained. Western half of the province was ceded to Poland, and the grand master (still ruling, among others, also Masuria) became a vassal of th...
The secularization of the Teutonic Order in Prussia and the conversion of Albert of Prussia to Lutheranism in 1525 brought Prussia including the later called Masuria area to Protestantism. The Polish language predominated due to the many immigrants from Mazovia, who additionally settled the eastern, till then virgin part of (later Masuria) in the 16th century. While the countryside was inhabited by Protestant Polish-speakers, who took refuge, the cities constituted German mixed with Polish-speaking population. The ancient Old Prussian language survived in parts of the countryside until the early 18th century. Areas that had many Polish language speakers were known as the Polish Departments. In 1656, during the Battle of Prostki, the forces of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, including 2,000 Tatar raiders, beat the allied Swedish and Brandenburg army capturing Bogusław Radziwiłł. The war resulted in...
After the death of Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia in 1618, his son-in-law John Sigismund, Margrave of Brandenburg, inherited the duchy (including Masuria), combining the two territories under a single dynasty and forming Brandenburg-Prussia. The Treaty of Wehlau revoked the sovereignty of the King of Poland in 1657. The region became part of the Kingdom of Prussia with the coronation of King Frederick I of Prussia in 1701. Masuria became part of the newly created administrative province of East Prussia upon its creation in 1773. The name Masuria began to be used officially after new administrative reforms in the Kingdom after 1818. Masurians referred to themselves during that period as "Polish Prussians" or as "Staroprusaki" (Old Prussians)Masurians showed considerable support for the Polish uprising in 1831, and maintained many contacts with Russian-held areas of Poland beyond the borde...
After the Unification of Germany into the German Empire in 1871, the Polish language was removed from schools in 1872, as part of Otto von Bismarck's Culture War. He also sought to eradicate the use of the Polish language and culture in the German Empire. After 1871 Masurians who expressed sympathy for Poland were deemed "national traitors" by German nationalists (this increased especially after 1918) According to Stefan Berger after 1871 the Masurians in the German Empire were seen in a view that while acknowledging their "objective" Polishness (in terms of culture and language) they felt "subjectively" German and thus should be tightly integrated into German nation-state; to Berger this argument went directly against the German nationalist demands in Alsace where Alsatians were declared German despite their "subjective" choice. Berger concludes that such the arguments of German nationalists were simply...
The region of Działdowo (Soldau), where according to the official German census of 1910 ethnic Germans formed a minority of 37.3%, was excluded from the plebiscite and became part of Poland. This was reasoned with placing the railway connection between Warsaw and Danzig(Gdańsk), of vital importance to Poland as it connected central Poland with its seacoast, completely under Polish sovereignty. Działdowo itself counted about 24,000 people of which 18,000 were Masurians According to the municipal administration of Rybno, after World War I Poles in Działdowo believed that they will be quickly joined with Poland, they organised secret gatherings during which the issue of rejoining Polish state with help of Polish military was discussed.According to the Rybno administration most active Poles in that subregion included Jóżwiakowscy, Wojnowscy, Grzeszczowscy families working under the guidance of politician Leon Wojnow...
Masuria was the only region of Germany directly affected by the battles of World War I. Damaged towns and villages were reconstructed with the aid of several twin towns from western Germany like Cologne to Neidenburg, Frankfurt to Lötzen and even Vienna to Ortelsburg. However Masuria was still largely agrarian-oriented and suffered from the economic decline after World War I, additionally badly affected by the creation of the Polish Corridor, which raised freight costs to the traditional markets in Germany.The later implemented Osthilfe had only a minor influence on Masuria as it privileged larger estates, while Masurian farms were generally small.[clarification needed] The interwar period was characterised by ongoing Germanisation policies, intensified especially under the Nazis In the 1920s Masuria remained a heartland of conservatism with the German National People's Party as strongest party. The Nazi Party...
According to the Masurian Institute the Masurian members of resistance against Nazi Germany who survived the war, became active in 1945 in the region, working in Olsztynin cooperation with new state authorities in administration, education and cultural affairs German author Andreas Kossert describes the post-war process of "national verification" as based on an ethnic racism which categorised the local populace according to their alleged ethnic background. A Polish-sounding last name or a Polish-speaking ancestor was sufficient to be regarded as "autochthonous" Polish.In October 1946 37,736 persons were "verified" as Polish citizens while 30,804 remained "unverified". A centre of such "unverified" Masurians was the district of Mrągowo (Sensburg), where in early 1946 out of 28,280 persons, 20,580 were "unverified", while in October, 16,385 still refused to adopt Polish citizenship. However even...
In modern Masuria the native population has virtually disappeared. Masuria was incorporated into the voivodeship system of administration in 1945. In 1999 Masuria was constituted with neighbouring Warmia as a single administrative province through the creation of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The Masurian Szczytno-Szymany International Airport gained international attention as press reports alleged the airport to be a so-called "black site" involved in the CIA's network of extraordinary renditions.
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The Masurian Lake District or Masurian Lakeland (Polish: Pojezierze Mazurskie; German: Masurische Seenplatte) is a lake district in northeastern Poland within the geographical region of Masuria, in the past inhabited by Masurians who spoke the Masurian dialect.
- 52,000 km² (20,000 sq mi)
This is a list of German language place names in Poland, now exonyms for towns and villages in the Masuria Region of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship This list is incomplete ; you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources .
Masúria (em polonês/polaco: Mazury) é uma área na região nordeste da Polônia, famosa pelo seus lagos e florestas.Juntamente com o Kaliningrado russo, mais ao norte e uma pequena secção da Lituânia, a região costumava ser uma parte da Prússia e da província da Prússia Oriental, um enclave alemão entre as guerras mundiais.
Masuria on alue Puolan koillisosassa. Se ulottuu noin 290 kilometriä Veiksel-joelta itään Liettuan vastaiselle rajalle asti. Alueen pinta-ala on noin 52 000 km². Siellä on noin kaksituhatta järveä. Alue on harvaan asuttua ja siitä on tullut suosittu lomakohde. Ennen toista maailmansotaa Masuria oli osa Saksalle kuulunutta Itä-Preussia.
- 52 000 km²
Masuria ou Mazuria  (en polaco Mazury, en alemán Masurenland) é unha antiga rexión do sur da Prusia Oriental, poboada desde o século XII principalmente por eslavos mazovios dos cales recibiu o nome, aínda que logo foi incorporada a Alemaña, pasando a formar parte de Polonia tras a Segunda Guerra Mundial