North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east.
North Africa is a relatively thin strip of land between the Sahara desert and the Mediterranean, stretching from Moroccan Atlantic coast to Egypt.Currently, the region comprises five countries, from west to east: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt.
Most of north Africa is desert, which means it is very dry and does not rain very much. The predominant ethnic groups are Arabs , Berbers and Moors (mixed Africans and Arabs). The biggest religion is Islam, meaning that most of the people are Muslims .
- Western Desert Campaign
- Operation Torch
- Tunisian campaign
The North African campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943. It included campaigns fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts and in Morocco and Algeria, as well as Tunisia. The campaign was fought between the Allies, many of whom had colonial interests in Africa dating from the late 19th century, and the Axis Powers. The Allied war effort was dominated by the British Commonwealth and exiles from German-occupied Europe. The United States official
On 10 May 1940, the Wehrmacht had started the Battle of France. One month later, it was clear that France would have to surrender within two weeks. On 10 June, the Kingdom of Italy aligned itself with Nazi Germany and declared war upon France and the United Kingdom. British forces based in Egypt were ordered to undertake defensive measures, but to act as non-provocatively as possible. However, on 11 June they began a series of raids against Italian positions in Libya. Following the defeat of Fra
Senior U.S. commanders were strongly opposed to proposed landings in North-West Africa. After the western Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff met in London on 30 July, 1942 General George Marshall and Admiral Ernest King declined to approve the plan. Marshall and other U.S. generals advocated the invasion of northern Europe later that year, which the British rejected. After Prime Minister Winston Churchill pressed for a landing in French North Africa in 1942, Marshall suggested instead to President
Following the Operation Torch landings—from early November 1942—the Germans and Italians initiated a buildup of troops in Tunisia to fill the vacuum left by Vichy troops which had withdrawn. During this period of weakness, the Allies decided against a rapid advance into Tunisia while they wrestled with the Vichy authorities. Many of the Allied soldiers were tied up in garrison duties because of the uncertain status and intentions of the Vichy forces. Tiger 712 of the 501st Heavy Panzer ...
The Axis had considerable success in intelligence gathering through radio communication intercepts and monitoring unit radio traffic. The most important success came through intercepting the reports of Colonel Bonner Fellers, the US military attaché in Egypt. He had been ...
Allied codebreakers read much enciphered German message traffic, especially that encrypted with the Enigma machine. The Allies' Ultra programme was initially of limited value, as it took too long to get the information to the commanders in the field, and at times provided informa
After victory by the Allies in the North African campaign, the stage was set for the Italian Campaign to begin. The invasion of Sicily followed two months later. Nearly 400,000 Axis and Allied troops were lost, injured or died of disease by the end of the North African campaign.
- Mitochondrial DNA
- Autosomal DNA
- Genetic influence
- Ancient DNA
The genetic history of North Africa has been heavily influenced by geography. The Sahara desert to the south and the Mediterranean Sea to the North were important barriers to gene flow in prehistoric times. However, Africa is connected to Western Asia via the Isthmus of Suez, while at the Straits of Gibraltar North Africa and Europe are separated by only 15 km. Although North Africa has experienced gene flows from the surrounding regions, it has also experienced long periods of genetic isolation
Haplogroup E is the most common paternal haplogroup among Berbers. It represents up to 100 percent of Y-chromosomes among some Berber populations. Haplogroup E is thought to have emerged in prehistoric North Africa or East Africa, and would have later dispersed into West Asia. The major subclades of haplogroup E found amongst Berbers belong to E-Z827, which is believed to have emerged in North Africa. Common subclades include E1b1b1a, E1b1b1b and E1b1b1*. E1b1b1b is distributed along a west-to-e
Individuals receive mtDNA only from their mothers. According to Macaulay et al. 1999, "one-third of Mozabite Berber mtDNAs have a Near Eastern ancestry, probably having arrived in North Africa less than 50,000 years ago, and one-eighth have an origin in sub-Saharan Africa. Europe appears to be the source of many of the remaining sequences, with the rest having arisen either in Europe or in the Near East". Maca-Meyer et al. 2003 analyze the "autochthonous North African lineage U6" in mtDNA, and c
On 13 January 2012, an exhaustive genetic study of North Africa's human populations was published in PLoS Genetics and was undertaken jointly by researchers in the Evolutionary Biology Institute and Stanford University, among other institutions. The study reveals that the genetic composition of North Africa's human populations is extremely complex, and the result of a local component dating back thirteen thousand years to approximately 11,000 BC and the varied genetic influence of neighbouring p
The general parent Y-chromosome Haplogroup E1b1b, which might have originated in the Horn of Africa or the Near East is by far the most common clade in North and Northeast Africa and found in select populations in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean and South Eastern Europe
Genetic studies on Iberian populations also show that North African mitochondrial DNA sequences and sub-Saharan sequences, although present at only low levels, are still at higher levels than those generally observed elsewhere in Europe, though very likely, most of the L mtDNA th
In 2013, Nature announced the publication of the first genetic study utilizing next-generation sequencing to ascertain the ancestral lineage of an Ancient Egyptian individual. The research was led by Carsten Pusch of the University of Tübingen in Germany and Rabab Khairat, who released their findings in the Journal of Applied Genetics. DNA was extracted from the heads of five Egyptian mummies that were housed at the institution. All the specimens were dated to between 806 BC and 124 AD, a ...
The History of North Africa during the period of Classical Antiquity (c. 8th century BCE – 5th century CE) can be divided roughly into the history of Egypt in the east, the history of Ancient Libya in the middle and the history of Numidia and Mauretania in the West.
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French North Africa (French: Afrique du Nord française) is the term often applied to the territories controlled by France in the North African Maghreb during the colonial era. It encompassed French Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia.
Tunisia is best known as the centre for ma'luf, a derivative of the Andalusian music imported to North Africa in the 15th century.Since the 1930s, a number of organisations (as well as the first President of Tunisia, Habib Bourguiba) have been promoting ma'luf as an integral aspect of Tunisian culture, helping to keep the ancient tradition alive.
The North Africa medal (French: Médaille d'Afrique du Nord) was a French commemorative medal established on 29 April 1997 by French President Jacques Chirac via decree 97-424, following an initiative of Pierre Pasquini, Minister for veterans' affairs and victims of war who expressed "the importance that an exceptional decoration be established for those who had fought in North Africa".