Claudia Octavia (AD 39–62 AD), daughter of Claudius and Valeria Messalina and first wife of Nero. Octavia E. Butler (1947–2006), African-American science fiction writer. Octavia (early 20th century), the name taken by Mabel Barltrop of the Panacea Society in 1918. Oktawia Kawęcka (born 1985), jazz musician, singer, flutist, composer ...
Pages in category "Octavii" The following 9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().
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Origin. The Octavii originally came from the Volscian town of Velitrae, in the Alban Hills.The historian Suetonius writes, . There are many indications that the Octavian family was in days of old a distinguished one at Velitrae; for not only was a street in the most frequented part of town long ago called Octavian, but an altar was shown there besides, consecrated by an Octavius.
- First Generation
- Second Generation
- Third Generation
- Fourth Generation
The first generation Octavia was released in November 1996 and was built at the modernised Škoda factory in Mladá Boleslav, Czech Republic.This generation was made available in sedan or estate styles only. In the United Kingdom, sales began in 1998 and the mid-size car was a success, nearing the success of established large family car favourites such as the Ford Mondeo and Vauxhall Vectra. The first generation Octavia had a facelift in 2000,and was still manufactured and marketed in some markets, even after the second generation was introduced in 2004. In Germany, and other parts of West Europe, as well as Asia, the first generation model was marketed as the Octavia Tour, while the newer model is marketed as the Octavia. In some markets, the first generation Octavia was still known as Octavia, and the newer model was referred to as the new Octavia, Octavia5 (Greece) or Laura (India). In India, Octavia was launched in 2002 and was an instant hit with Indians for its frugal engines an...
The Škoda Octavia has been used in the European Touring Car Championship, the World Rally Championship and the FIA 2-Litre World Rally Cup.
The second-generation Octavia was introduced in March 2004, based on the Volkswagen Group A5 (PQ35) platform also used by other Volkswagen Group cars, such as the Audi A3 Mk2, Volkswagen Golf Mk5, Volkswagen Jetta Mk5, SEAT León Mk2, etc. Responsible for the design were Thomas Ingenlathand Peter Wouda. Along with a new internal-combustion engine range, also shared with other models of the Volkswagen Group, body changes included more legroom for rear-seat passengers (a weak point in the original model) and increased ground clearance at front and rear to reduce the risk of grounding on steep ramps or facing kerbs. In addition to the Czech factories in Mladá Boleslav and Vrchlabi, from 2008, the Octavia has also been produced at a factory in Bratislava, Slovakia, and in Shanghai, China, under the joint venture of Shanghai Volkswagen.In Russia, the Octavia is assembled at the Volkswagen plant in Kaluga. In India, the second-generation Octavia was marketed as the Laura to distinguish it...
The third-generation Octavia was revealed on 11 December 2012, at the Škoda Museum in Mladá Boleslav.The car began to appear in showrooms in key European markets in February 2013. Previously, photos of the car covered in light camouflage were released to the media in late October 2012, after other pre-production cars had already been spotted on several occasions during the same month. It was once again spotted, this time without camouflage, on 18 November 2012, in Santiago, Chile, in both sedan and estate body styles, during the filming of a TV advertisement. The car, designed by Jozef Kabaň, recalls the VisionD concept car presented in 2011. The new model is 9 cm (3.54 in) longer and 4.5 cm (1.77 in) wider than the second generation and the wheelbase lengthened by 8 cm (3.15 in). It is also up to 102 kg lighter than the previous model. The interior length of the third-generation ŠKODA Octavia has grown - in comparison to its predecessor - by 33 mm (1.30 in) to 1,782 mm (70.16 in),...
The fourth-generation Octavia was revealed in Prague on 11 November 2019. It was scheduled to be delivered to customers starting from June 2020. The new generation Octavia features many new technologies. It is the first Škoda model to use a head-up display. Another new technologies include two 10" displays, wireless smartphone charging, up to 5 USB-C ports, a new Sound System by Canton, a classic shifting stick of automatic gearbox is replaced with a new joystick, and new safety features such as taking control of steering in case of a possible accident, checking for oncoming vehicles when opening doors or detection of the unconscious driver. Since June 2020, the Octavia is sold as an estate and liftback with standard petrol and diesel engines. Plug-in hybrid Octavia iV estate and liftback sport Octavia RS estate and liftback, CNG/petrol Octavia G-Tec estate and liftback and all terrain-styled Octavia Scout are coming soon with orders being taken. It was also supposed to be on sale i...
Octavia Lenora Spencer (born May 25, 1970) is an American actress, author, and producer. She is the recipient of several accolades, including an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and three Screen Actors Guild Awards.
Augustus was born Gaius Octavius in Rome on September 23, 63 BC. He was a member of the respectable, but undistinguished, Octavii family through his father, also named Gaius Octavius, and was the great-nephew of Julius Caesar through his mother Atia Balba Caesonia.
- Early Life
- Rise to Success
- Writing Career
- Later Years and Death
- Critical Reception
- Point of View
Octavia Estelle Butler was born in Pasadena, California, the only child of Octavia Margaret Guy, a housemaid, and Laurice James Butler, a shoeshine man. Butler's father died when she was seven. She was raised by her mother and maternal grandmother in what she would later recall as a strict Baptistenvironment. Growing up in the racially integrated community of Pasadena allowed Butler to experience cultural and ethnic diversity in the midst of racial segregation. She accompanied her mother to her cleaning work, where the two entered white people's houses through back doors, as workers. Her mother was treated poorly by her employers. From an early age, an almost paralyzing shyness made it difficult for Butler to socialize with other children. Her awkwardness, paired with a slight dyslexia that made schoolwork a torment, made Butler an easy target for bullies, and led her to believe that she was "ugly and stupid, clumsy, and socially hopeless". As a result, she frequently passed the tim...
Although Butler's mother wanted her to become a secretary in order to have a steady income, Butler continued to work at a series of temporary jobs. She preferred less demanding work that would allow her to get up at two or three in the morning to write. Success continued to elude her. She styled her stories after the white-and-male-dominated science fiction she had grown up reading. She enrolled at California State University, Los Angeles, but switched to taking writing courses through UCLAExtension. During the Open Door Workshop of the Writers Guild of America West, a program designed to mentor minority writers, her writing impressed one of the teachers, noted science-fiction writer Harlan Ellison. He encouraged her to attend the six-week Clarion Science Fiction Writers Workshop in Clarion, Pennsylvania. There, Butler met the writer Samuel R. Delany, who became a longtime friend. She also sold her first stories: "Childfinder" to Ellison, for his anthology The Last Dangerous Visions...
Early stories, Patternist series, and Kindred: 1971–1984
Butler's first work published was "Crossover" in the 1971 Clarion Workshop anthology. She also sold the short story "Childfinder" to Harlan Ellison for the anthology The Last Dangerous Visions. "I thought I was on my way as a writer", Butler recalled in her short fiction collection Bloodchild and Other Stories. "In fact, I had five more years of rejection slips and horrible little jobs ahead of me before I sold another word." Starting in 1974, Butler worked on a series of novels that would la...
Bloodchild and the Xenogenesis trilogy: 1984–1989
Butler followed Clay's Arkwith the critically acclaimed short story "Bloodchild" (1984). Set on an alien planet, it depicts the complex relationship between human refugees and the insect-like aliens who keep them in a preserve to protect them, but also to use them as hosts for breeding their young. Sometimes called Butler's "pregnant man story", "Bloodchild" won the Nebula, Hugo, and Locus Awards, and the Science Fiction Chronicle Reader Award. Three years later, Butler published Dawn, the fi...
The Parable series: 1993–1998
In the mid-1990s, Butler published two novels later designated as the Parable (or Earthseed) series. The books depict the struggle of the Earthseed community to survive the socioeconomic and political collapse of 21st-century America due to poor environmental stewardship, corporate greed, and the growing gap between the wealthy and the poor.The books propose alternate philosophical views and religious interventions as solutions to such dilemmas. The first book in the series, Parable of the So...
During her last years, Butler struggled with writer's block and depression, partly caused by the side effects of medication for high blood pressure. She continued writing and taught at Clarion's Science Fiction Writers' Workshop regularly. In 2005, she was inducted into Chicago State University's International Black Writers Hall of Fame. Butler died outside of her home in Lake Forest Park, Washington, on February 24, 2006, aged 58. Contemporary news accounts were inconsistent as to the cause of her death, with some reporting that she suffered a fatal stroke, and other indicating that she died of head injuries after falling and striking her head on her cobbled walkway. Another suggestion, backed by Locusmagazine, is that a stroke caused the fall and hence the head injuries. Butler maintained a longstanding relationship with the Huntington Library and bequeathed her papers including manuscripts, correspondence, school papers, notebooks, and photographs to the library in her will.The c...
The critique of present-day hierarchies
In multiple interviews and essays, Butler explained her view of humanity as inherently flawed by an innate tendency towards hierarchical thinking which leads to intolerance, violence and, if not checked, the ultimate destruction of our species. "Simple peck-order bullying", she wrote in her essay "A World without Racism", "is only the beginning of the kind of hierarchical behavior that can lead to racism, sexism, ethnocentrism, classism, and all the other 'isms' that cause so much suffering i...
The remaking of the human
In his essay on the sociobiological backgrounds of Butler's Xenogenesis trilogy, J. Adam Johns describes how Butler's narratives counteract the death drive behind the hierarchical impulse with an innate love of life (biophilia), particularly different, strange life. Specifically, Butler's stories feature gene manipulation, interbreeding, miscegenation, symbiosis, mutation, alien contact, rape, contamination, and other forms of hybridity as the means to correct the sociobiological causes of hi...
The survivor as hero
Butler's protagonists are disenfranchised individuals who endure, compromise, and embrace radical change in order to survive. As De Witt Douglas Kilgore and Ranu Samantrai note, her stories focus on minority characters whose historical background makes them already intimate with brutal violation and exploitation, and therefore the need to compromise to survive. Even when endowed with extra abilities, these characters are forced to experience unprecedented physical, mental, and emotional distr...
The New York Times regarded her novels as "evocative" and "often troubling" explorations of "far-reaching issues of race, sex, power". Writing in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Orson Scott Card called her examination of humanity "clear-headed and brutally unsentimental", and The Village Voice's Dorothy Allison described her as "writing the most detailed social criticism" where "the hard edge of cruelty, violence, and domination is described in stark detail". Locus regarded her as "one of those authors who pay serious attention to the way human beings actually work together and against each other, and she does so with extraordinary plausibility." The Houston Postranked her "among the best SF writers, blessed with a mind capable of conceiving complicated futuristic situations that shed considerable light on our current affairs." Some scholars have focused on Butler's choice to write from the point of view of marginal characters and communities and thus "expanded SF to re...
In interviews with Charles Rowell and Randall Kenan, Butler credited the struggles of her working-class mother as an important influence on her writing.Because Butler's mother received little formal education herself, she made sure that young Butler was given the opportunity to learn by bringing her reading materials that her white employers threw away, from magazines to advanced books. She also encouraged Butler to write. She bought her daughter her first typewriter when she was 10 years old, and, seeing her hard at work on a story casually remarked that maybe one day she could become a writer, causing Butler to realize that it was possible to make a living as an author. A decade later, Mrs. Butler would pay more than a month's rent to have an agent review her daughter's work.She also provided Butler with the money she had been saving for dental work to pay for Butler's scholarship so she could attend the Clarion Science Fiction Writers Workshop, where Butler sold her first two sto...
Butler began reading science fiction at a young age, but quickly became disenchanted by the genre's unimaginative portrayal of ethnicity and class as well as by its lack of noteworthy female protagonists. She determined to correct those gaps by, as De Witt Douglas Kilgore and Ranu Samantrai point out, "choosing to write self-consciously as an African-American woman marked by a particular history"—what Butler termed as "writing myself in".Butler's stories, therefore, are usually written from the perspective of a marginalized black woman whose difference from the dominant agents increases her potential for reconfiguring the future of her society.
Publishers and critics have labelled Butler's work as science fiction. While Butler enjoyed the genre deeply, calling it "potentially the freest genre in existence", she resisted being branded a genre writer. Her narratives have drawn attention of people from varied ethnic and cultural backgrounds.She claimed to have three loyal audiences: black readers, science-fiction fans, and feminists.
Parable of the Sower was adapted as Parable of the Sower: The Opera, written by American folk/blues musician Toshi Reagon in collaboration with her mother, singer and composer Bernice Johnson Reagon. The adaptation's libretto and musical score combine African-American spirituals, soul, rock and roll, and folk music into rounds to be performed by singers sitting in a circle. It was performed as part of The Public Theater's 2015 Under the Radar Festivalin New York City. Kindred was adapted as a graphic novel by author Damien Duffy and artist John Jennings. The adaptation was published by Abrams ComicsArts on January 10, 2017. To visually differentiate the time periods in which Butler set the story, Jennings used muted colors for the present and vibrant ones for the past to demonstrate how the remnants and relevance of slavery are still with us. The graphic novel adaption debuted as number one New York Times hardcover graphic book bestseller on January 29, 2017. After the success of Ki...
- Further Reading
Octavia, weary of her existence, bewails her misery. Her nurse curses the drawbacks which beset life in a Palace. The Nurse consoles Octavia and dissuades her from executing any revenge which she might be contemplating. The Chorus being in favor of Octavia, looks with detestation upon the marriage of Poppaea, and condemns the degenerate patience of the Romans, as being unworthy, too indifferent and servile, and complains about the crimes of Nero.
Seneca deplores the vices of his times, praises the simplicity of his former life, and offers his opinion that all things are tending to the worse. The philosopher warns his patron Nero but to no purpose. Nero stubbornly insists on carrying out his tyrannical plans, and appoints the next day for his marriage with Poppaea.
Agrippina appears from the underworld as a cruel soothsayer. She brings torches from the underworld to grace the wedding, and predicts the death of Nero. Octavia urges the populace, who are espousing her cause, not to grieve about her divorce. The Chorus however, does grieve for her sad lot.Otto Zwierlein (ed.), Seneca Tragoedia(Oxford: Clarendon Press: Oxford Classical Texts: 1986)Octavia: A Play attributed to Seneca, ed. Rolando Ferri (Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries No.41, Cambridge UP, 2003)John G. Fitch Tragedies, Volume II: Oedipus. Agamemnon. Thyestes. Hercules on Oeta. Octavia(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press: Loeb Classical Library: 2004)P. Kragelund, Prophecy, Populism, and Propaganda in the "Octavia"(Copenhagen, 1982).T. Barnes, "The Date of the Octavia," MH, 39 (1982) 215-17.Harris, W.V., Restraining Rage: The Ideology of Anger Control in Classical Antiquity (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2001).
- Pierwsza Generacja
- Druga Generacja
- Trzecia Generacja
- Czwarta Generacja
Škoda Octavia Izostała zaprezentowana po raz pierwszy w listopadzie 1996 roku. Octavia I wprowadzona została po raz pierwszy na rynek pod koniec 1996 roku. Pojazd był pierwszym modelem Škody zaprojektowanym w biurach konstrukcyjnych Volkswagena.Samochód został zbudowany na bazie płyty podłogowej VW A4 PQ 34, która wykorzystana została do budowy m.in. Audi A3 oraz TT, Volkswagena Bora/Jetta oraz Golfa IV. Pod koniec 1997 roku wprowadzona została wersja kombi pojazdu, która w 1999 roku otrzymała opcjonalny napęd na cztery koła. W 1998 roku do listy wyposażenia standardowego pojazdu dodano system ABS oraz poduszkę powietrzną kierowcy. W 2000 roku auto przeszło face lifting. Zmieniony został m.in. przedni zderzak oraz tylne lampy, a także odświeżono atrapę chłodnicy. Przy okazji liftingu wprowadzona została sportowa odmiana RS. Pomimo zaprezentowania w 2004 roku II generacji modelu I generacja pozostała na rynku pod nazwą Škoda Octavia Tour. Produkcję zakończono 9 listopada 2010 roku. W...
Škoda Octavia IIzostała po raz pierwszy zaprezentowana w 2004 roku. Samochód został zbudowany na bazie zmodyfikowanej płyty podłogowej VW A5 PQ, która wykorzystana została do budowy m.in. Audi A3, Seata Altea, León oraz Toledo, a także Volkswagena Golfa V, Jetta, Touran oraz Golfa Plus. Początkowo pojazd występował wyłącznie w wersji liftback do której w 2004 roku dołączyła wersja kombi. W 2005 roku podczas targów motoryzacyjnych we Frankfurcie zaprezentowano usportowioną odmianę RS, a w 2007 roku uterenowioną wersję Scout, która otrzymała powiększony prześwit, napęd na cztery koła oraz plastikowe nakładki karoserii. W 2005 roku do wyposażenia standardowego pojazdu dodano m.in. czujniki cofania. W 2008 roku auto przeszło face lifting. Zmienione zostały m.in. przednie i tylne reflektory, zderzaki, pokrywa silnika oraz delikatnie przemodelowane zostało wnętrze. Zmieniono w nim m.in. zegary oraz kierownicę. W ciągu 9 lat wyprodukowano 2 358 400 egzemplarzy tego modelu.
Škoda Octavia III została po raz pierwszy oficjalnie zaprezentowana podczas konferencji prasowej 11 grudnia 2012 roku w Muzeum Škody w Mladá Boleslav. Produkcję seryjną pojazdu rozpoczęto 17 grudnia 2012 roku. Samochód został zbudowany na bazie płyty podłogowej MQB wykorzystanej do budowy m.in. Audi A3, Seata Leóna, Volkswagen Jetta oraz Golfa VII. W 2013 roku podczas targów motoryzacyjnych w Genewie zaprezentowana została wersja kombi pojazdu, a także wersja z napędem na cztery koła. 10 lipca 2013 roku podczas Festiwalu Szybkości w Goodwood zaprezentowana została usportowiona wersja RS. Pojazd napędzany może być silnikiem benzynowym 2.0 TSI o mocy 220 KM lub silnikiem wysokoprężnym 2.0 TDI o mocy 184 KM. Samochód charakteryzuje się niżej zawieszonym nadwoziem, zmieniony zderzakiem przednim z innymi wlotami powietrza, dyfuzorem umieszczonym pod tylnym zderzakiem oraz tylnym spojlerem. W 2014 roku podczas targów motoryzacyjnych w Genewie zaprezentowana została uterenowiona odmiana Sc...
Škoda Octavia IVzostała po raz pierwszy zaprezentowana w 2019 roku. Premiera czwartej generacji odbyła się 11 listopada 2019 roku. Samochód przeszedł wyraźne wizualne zmiany na tle poprzednika – stał się większy, zyskał bardziej muskularną sylwetkę i więcej ostrych linii. Octavia IV została utrzymana w nowej estetyce marki, którą z końcem 2018 roku zapoczątkował model Scala, co przekłada się na strzeliste, ścięte reflektory (znów są jednoczęściowe) i podłużne tylne lampy. Duże zmiany pojawiły się także w kabinie pasażerskiej, na czele z kokpitem. Wyróżnia się on dużym, 10-calowym dotykowym ekranem służącym do sterowania klimatyzacją, radiem i nawigacją. Oferuje o też łączność Bluetooth, Apple CarPlay i Android Auto. Oryginalnym rozwiązaniem jest też nowa, jednoramienna kierownica. Zbudowana na nowej platformie MQB Octavia IV jest nie tylko większa pod kątem wymiarów zewnętrznych, ale i ma obszerniejsze wnętrze. Przekłada się to szczególnie na przestrzeń dla pasażerów tylnej kanapy i...Octavia RS pierwszej generacji produkowana była tylko w czterech kolorach: srebrnym (diamond), żółtym (lemon), czerwonym (corrida) oraz czarnym(magic).13 lipca 2006 roku zakłady w Mladá Boleslav opuściła 10-milionowa Škoda. Była to Škoda Octavia Combi 2.0 TDi. Jubileuszowy samochód przekazano organizacji Czeskie Centra, promującej Czechyna arenie...Podczas międzynarodowego salonu samochodowego w Pekinie otwartego 18 listopada 2006 roku Škoda Auto zaprezentowała Octavię, specjalnie zaprojektowaną na rynek chiński. Wyeksponowano także inne mode...Wyprodukowanie 500-tysięcznego egzemplarza Škody Octavii drugiej generacji świętowano w fabryce w Mladá Boleslav20 kwietnia 2007 roku. Tym wyjątkowym modelem był srebrny sedan w wersji RS napędzany...