Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.Rather than a unified language, Old French was really a linkage of Romance dialects, mutually intelligible yet diverse, spoken in the northern half of France.
Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. It was then known as the langue d'oïl .
The period of Old French spanned between the 8th and 14th centuries. Old French shared many characteristics with Latin. For example, Old French made use of different possible word orders just as Latin did because it had a case system that retained the difference between nominative subjects and oblique non-subjects.
- Origin of Term
- Foreign Policy
- Provinces and Administrative Divisions
- State Finances
- Social Structure
The term Ancien Régime first appeared in print in English in 1794 (two years after the inauguration of the First French Republic) and was originally pejorative in nature. Simon Schamahas observed that "virtually as soon as the term was coined, 'old regime' was automatically freighted with associations of both traditionalism and senescence. It conjured up a society so encrusted with anachronisms that only a shock of great violence could free the living organism within. Institutionally torpid, economically immobile, culturally atrophied and socially stratified, this 'old regime' was incapable of self-modernization".
Nine Years' War: 1688–1697
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) was a major conflict between France and a coalition of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy. It was fought Continental Europe and the surrounding seas, and in Ireland, North America and India. It was the first truly-global war. Louis XIV had emerged from the Franco-Dutch War in 1678 as the most powerful monarch in Europe and an absolute ruler who had won numerous military victories. Using a combination of aggression, ann...
War of the Spanish Succession: 1702–1714
Spain had a number of major assets, apart from its homeland itself. It controlled important territory in Europe and the New World. Spain's American colonies produced enormous quantities of silver, which were brought to Spain every few years in convoys. Spain had many weaknesses as well. Its domestic economy had little business, industry or advanced craftsmanship ans was poor. Spain had to import practically all of its weapons and had a large army but one that was poorly trained and poorly equ...
Peaceful interlude: 1715–1740
The quarter-century after the Treaty of Utrecht was peaceful, with no major wars and only a few secondary military episodes of minor importance. The main powers had exhausted themselves in warfare, with many deaths, disabled veterans, ruined navies, high pension costs, heavy loans and high taxes. In 1683, indirect taxes had brought in 118,000,000 livres, but by 1714, they had plunged to only 46,000,000 livres. Louis XIV, with his eagerness for warfare, was gone and replaced by a small sickly...
In the mid-15th century, France was significantly smaller than it is today,[b] and numerous border provinces (such as Roussillon, Cerdagne, Conflent, Vallespir, Capcir, Calais, Béarn, Navarre, County of Foix, Flanders, Artois, Lorraine, Alsace, Trois-Évêchés, Franche-Comté, Savoy, Bresse, Bugey, Gex, Nice, Provence, Dauphiné and Brittany) were autonomous or belonged to the Holy Roman Empire, the Crown of Aragon or the Kingdom of Navarra; there were also foreign enclaves like the Comtat Venais...
Despite efforts by the kings to create a centralised state out of these provinces, France still remained a patchwork of local privileges and historical differences. The arbitrary power of the monarch (as implied by the expression "absolute monarchy") was much limited by historic and regional particularities. Administrative (including taxation), legal (parlement), judicial and ecclesiastic divisions and prerogatives frequently overlapped (for example, French bishoprics and diocesesrarely coinc...
The desire for more efficient tax collection was one of the major causes for French administrative and royal centralisation during the early modern period. The taille became a major source of royal income. Exempted from were clergy and nobles (except for non-noble lands held in pays d'état, see below), officers of the crown, military personnel, magistrates, university professors and students, and certain cities (villes franches) such as Paris. The provinces were of three sorts, the pays d'élection, the pays d'état and the pays d'imposition. In the pays d'élection (the longest-held possessions of the French crown; some of the provinces had held the equivalent autonomy of a pays d'étatbut had lost it through the effects of royal reforms) the assessment and collection of taxes were trusted to elected officials (at least originally since later those positions were bought), and the tax was generally "personal" and so was attached to non-noble individuals. In the pays d'état ("provinces w...
Justice in seigneurial lands (including those held by the church or within cities) was generally overseen by the seigneur or his delegated officers. Since the 15th century, much of the seigneur's legal purview had been given to the bailliages or sénéchaussées and the présidiaux (see below), leaving only affairs concerning seigneurial dues and duties, and small affairs of local justice. Only certain seigneurs, those with the power of haute justice (seigneurial justice was divided into "high" "...
The following were cours souveraines, or superior courts, whose decisions could be revoked only by "the king in his conseil" (see administration section below). 1. Parlements – eventually 14 in number: Paris, Languedoc (Toulouse), Provence (Aix), Franche-Comté (Besançon), Guyenne (Bordeaux), Burgundy (Dijon), Flanders (Douai), Dauphiné (Grenoble), Trois-Évêchés (Metz), Lorraine (Nancy), Navarre (Pau), Brittany (Rennes, briefly in Nantes), Normandy (Rouen) and (from 1523–1771) Dombes (Trévoux)...
One of the established principles of the French monarchy was that the king could not act without the advice of his counsel, and the formula "le roi en son conseil" expressed that deliberative aspect. The administration of the French state in the early modern period went through a long evolution, as a truly-administrative apparatus, relying on old nobility, newer chancellor nobility ("noblesse de robe") and administrative professionals, was substituted to the feudal clientelist system.
The French monarchy was irrevocably linked to the Catholic Church (the formula was la France est la fille aînée de l'église, or "France is the eldest daughter of the church"), and French theorists of the divine right of kings and sacerdotal power in the Renaissance had made those links explicit. Henry IV was able to ascend to the throne only after abjuring Protestantism. The symbolic power of the Catholic monarch was apparent in his crowning (the king was anointed by blessed oil in Rheims) and he was popularly believed to be able to cure scrofula by the laying on of his hands (accompanied by the formula "the king touches you, but God heals you"). In 1500, France had 14 archbishoprics (Lyon, Rouen, Tours, Sens, Bourges, Bordeaux, Auch, Toulouse, Narbonne, Aix-en-Provence, Embrun, Vienne, Arles and Rheims) and 100 bishoprics. By the 18th century, archbishoprics and bishoprics had expanded to a total of 139 (see List of Ancien Régime dioceses of France). The upper levels of the French...
Political power was widely dispersed among certain elites. The law courts ("Parlements") were powerful, especially that of France. However, the king had only about 10,000 officials in royal service: very few indeed for such a large country and with very slow internal communications over an inadequate road system. Travel was usually faster by ocean ship or river boat. The different estates of the realm (the clergy, the nobility, and commoners) occasionally met together in the Estates General, but in practice, the Estates General had no power since it could petition the king but not pass laws itself. The Catholic Church controlled about 40% of the wealth, which was tied up in long-term endowments that could be added to but not reduced. The king, not the pope)l, nominated bishops, but typically had to negotiate with noble families that had close ties to local monasteries and church establishments. The nobility came second in terms of wealth, but there was no unity. Each noble had his o...
In 1789, the Ancien Régime was violently overthrown by the French Revolution. Although France in 1785 faced economic difficulties that concerned mostly the equitability of taxation, it was one of the richest and most powerful nations of Europe. The French people also enjoyed more political freedomand a lower incidence of arbitrary punishment than many of their fellow Europeans. However, Louis XVI, his ministers, and the widespread French nobility had become immensely unpopular because the peasants and, to a lesser extent, the bourgeoisiewere burdened with ruinously-high taxes, which were levied to support wealthy aristocrats and their sumptuous lifestyles. Historians explain the sudden collapse of the Ancien Régime as stemming in part from its rigidity. Aristocrats were confronted by the rising ambitions of merchants, tradesmen and prosperous farmers that were allied with aggrieved peasants, wage-earners and intellectuals influenced by the ideas of Enlightenmentphilosophers. As the...
For some observers, the term came to denote a certain nostalgia. For example, Talleyrandfamously quipped: That affection was caused by the perceived decline in culture and values after the revolution during which the aristocracy lost much of its economic and political power to what was seen as a rich, coarse and materialistic bourgeoisie. The theme recurs throughout 19th-century French literature, with Balzac and Flaubertalike attacking the mores of the new upper classes. To that mindset, the Ancien Régime had expressed a bygone era of refinement and grace before the revolution and its associated changes disrupted the aristocratic tradition and ushered in a crude uncertain modernity. The historian Alexis de Tocqueville argued against that defining narrative in his classic study L'Ancien Régime et la Révolution, which highlighted the continuities in French institutions before and after the revolution.
Language. Label. Description. Also known as. English. Old French. Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the middle of the 14th century. fro.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. Rather than a unified language, Old French was really a linkage of Romance dialects, mutually intelligible yet diverse, spoken in the northern half of France.
May 10, 2021 · Wp/fro. From Wikimedia Incubator < Wp Wp > fro. Old French Wikipedia. This is an open test wiki of the Wikimedia Incubator.