The International Hydrographic Organization defines the Persian Gulf's southern limit as "The Northwestern limit of Gulf of Oman". This limit is defined as "A line joining Ràs Limah (25°57'N) on the coast of Arabia and Ràs al Kuh (25°48'N) on the coast of Iran (Persia)".
2019–2021 Persian Gulf crisis. Iran: 1 tanker captured by United Kingdom (later released),1 tanker captured by Indonesia, 1 tanker damaged (responsibility disputed), atleast 12 tankers and cargo vessels damaged or sunk by Israel. The 2019–2021 Persian Gulf crisis is the ongoing state of heightened military tensions between the Islamic ...
- Proposed alternatives
- Viewpoint of Iran (Persia)
- Viewpoint of third parties
The Persian Gulf naming dispute is concerned with the name of the body of water known historically and internationally as the Persian Gulf, after the land of Persia. This name has become contested by some Arab countries since the 1960s in connection with the emergence of pan-Arabism and Arab nationalism, resulting in the invention of the toponym "Arabian Gulf" as well as "Gulf", which are terms still used in some Arab countries.
On almost all maps printed before 1960, and in most modern international treaties, documents and maps, this body of water is known by the name "Persian Gulf". This reflects traditional usage since the Greek geographers Strabo and Ptolemy, and the geopolitical realities of the time with a powerful Persian Empire comprising the whole northern coastline and a scattering of local authorities on the Arabian Peninsular coast of the Persian Gulf. It was referred to as the Persian Gulf by all Arab histo
The matter remains very contentious as the competing naming conventions are supported by certain governments in internal literature, but also in dealings with other states and international organizations. Some parties use terms like "The Gulf" or the "Arabo-Persian Gulf". Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 some people in Islamic groups suggested the use of "Islamic Gulf" or "Muslim Gulf". The originator of the term Islamic Gulf is not known, while some people suggest that prominent figures
Iran only uses the term "Persian Gulf" and does not usually recognize the naming when it is referred to as "Arabian Gulf" or just the "Gulf" or by any other alternative. Iran does not consider the latter an impartial usage, and views it as an active contribution to the abandonment of the historical name. In a 1974 interview by Mike Wallace in 60 Minutes, the last Shah of Iran himself preferred the term "Persian Gulf" while talking to Wallace. In February 2010 Iran threatened to ban from its airs
According to the book Documents on the Persian Gulf's name, the United Nations Secretariat and its specialized agencies have requested its staff to use only "Persian Gulf" as a standard geographical designation. The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names discussed
The International Hydrographic Organization, an international body for provision of hydrographic information for worldwide marine navigation and other purposes, uses the name "Gulf of Iran " for this body of water, in its standard S-23, section 41, published in 1953.
The United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency GEOnet Names Server is the "official repository of standard spellings of all foreign place names" sanctioned by the Board of Geographical Names. The GNS lists "Persian Gulf" as the Conventional name, along with 14 Variant
- British Control
The sea waters of the Persian Gulf covers an area of 233,000 km². On the east, it connects with the Gulf of Oman by Strait of Hormuz. On the west, it connects a major river delta of Shatt al-Arab. In this river delta, waters of two big rivers of the area flow into: the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigrisrivers. The length of the Persian Gulf is 989 kilometers, and the shortest distance between two land points are 56 kilometers. The waters are generally not very deep. The maximum depth is only 90 meters. The average depth is only 50 meters. There are many countries with borders touching the Persian Gulf. If taken in a clockwise direction, these countries are from the north: Iran, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Qatar on a peninsula off the Saudi coast; Bahrain on an island; and Kuwait and Iraqin the northwest. Many small islands lie within the Persian Gulf.
The area in and around the Persian Gulf has world’s largest crude oil. Industries relating to crude oil are the main industries in this area. Al-Safaniya, the world’s largest offshore oil field is in the Persian Gulf. Many countries with large crude oil are in this area. They are called Persian Gulf States, that is, the countries around the Persian Gulf. These countries are Iran, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Iraq (with its small portion touching the Persian Gulf) is not called a Persian Gulf State.
For about 200 years, from 1763 until 1971, the United Kingdom kept some control over some of the Persian Gulf countries. These countries were the Trucial States and at various times Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Qatar. Upon independence most of the Trucial States made a new United Arab Emirates.
Ukraine 11. Sweden 10. Afghanistan 7. United Kingdom 3. Total: 222 killed. The 2019–20 Persian Gulf crisis, also known as the Iranian–American confrontation and the Crisis in the Gulf, is an increase of military tensions between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United States of America in the Persian Gulf region.
- 5 May 2019 – ongoing, (2 years, 2 months and 3 days)
- Ongoing, Western military presence in Persian Gulf increased; formation of the American-led International Maritime Security Construct, Additional sanctions on Iran imposed, Assassination of the Iranian general Qasem Soleimani, Iranian withdrawal from the nuclear deal
- Early history
- 17th century
- 18th century
- 19th century
- 1809 Persian Gulf campaign
Piracy in the Persian Gulf describes the naval warfare that was prevalent until the 19th century and occurred between seafaring Arabs in Eastern Arabia and the British Empire in the Persian Gulf. It was perceived as one of the primary threats to global maritime trade routes, particularly those with significance to British India and Iraq. Many of the most notable historical instances of these raids were conducted by the Al Qasimi tribe. This led to the British mounting the Persian Gulf campaign o
Piracy flourished in the Persian Gulf during the commercial decline of the Dilmun Civilization around 1800 BC. As early as 694 BC, Assyrian pirates attacked traders traversing to and from India via the Persian Gulf. King Sennacherib attempted to wipe out the piracy but his efforts were unsuccessful. It is suggested in the historical literature of the Chronicle of Seert that piracy interfered with the trade network of the Sasanians around the 5th century. The works mention ships en route from Ind
Following the expulsion of the Portuguese from Bahrain in 1602, the Al Qasimi – the tribes extending from the Qatari Peninsula to the Ras Musandam – adopted maritime raiding as a way of life due to the lack of any maritime authority in the area. European piracy in the Persian Gulf was frequent in the 16th and 17th century, targeting mainly Indian vessels en route to Mecca. Edward Balfour asserts that the Muscat Arabs were "highly predatory" from 1694 to 1736, but it was not until 1787 ...
One of the earliest mentions of piracy by the British comes from a letter written by William Bowyear dated in 1767. It describes a Persian pirate named Mīr Muhannā. The letter states "In his day, he was a major source of concern for all those who traded along the Persian Gulf and his exploits were an early factor, beyond purely commercial concerns, that led the East India Company to first become entangled in the politics of the region". Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah was the most notorious ...
Around 1805, the Wahhabis maintained an unsteady suzerainty over parts of the southern Persian coast. They implemented a system of organized raids on foreign shipping. The vice-regent of the Pirate Coast, Husain bin Ali, compelled the Al Qasimi chiefs to send their vessels to plu
In the aftermath of a series of attacks in 1808 off the coast Sindh involving 50 Qasimi raiders and following the 1809 monsoon season, the British authorities in India decided to make a significant show of force against the Al Qasimi, in an effort not only to destroy their larger bases and as many ships as could be found, but also to counteract French encouragement of them from their embassies in Persia and Oman. By the morning of 14 November, the military expedition was over and the British for
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The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Kuwait War, First Iraq War, or Iraq War before the term "Iraq War" became identified instead with the 2003 Iraq War (also referred to in the U.S. as "Operation Iraqi Freedom").
- 17 January – 28 February 1991, (1 month, 1 week and 4 days)
- Coalition victory, Iraqi forces expelled from Kuwait, Kuwaiti independence restored, Destruction of Iraqi and Kuwaiti infrastructure, Failed Shia/Kurdish uprisings against the Iraqi government, Saddam Hussein regime of the Iraqi Baathist government retains power in Iraq, UN sanctions against Iraq, Iraqi no-fly zones established, United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 establishes cease-fire terms, beginning of the Iraq disarmament controversies
The 2020–21 Persian Gulf Pro League (formerly known as Iran Pro League) are the 38th season of Iran's Football League and 20th as Persian Gulf Pro League since its establishment in 2001. Persepolis are the defending champions and won their record-extending 4th consecutive title and 13th title overall (6th in the Pro League era) previous season.
Gulf War. The Persian Gulf War, sometimes just called the Gulf War, was a conflict between Iraq and 34 other countries, led by the United States. It started with the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq on August 2, 1990. Iraq had long claimed Kuwait as part of its territory. The war ended the following spring when Iraq's armies were defeated.