The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus (Russian: Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo later changed to Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also called the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter I in 1721.
While the oldest endonyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used...
- Byzantine heritage
By the 16th century, the Russian ruler had emerged as a...
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Russia's economy is the world's eleventh-largest by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. It is a recognised nuclear-weapon state, possessing the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the world's largest, and it is one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally.
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- Kievan Rus, Mongol invasion and vassalage
- Tsardom of Russia
This article presents the demographic history of Russia covering the period of Kievan Rus, its successor states, the Mongol domination and the unified Tsardom of Russia. See Demographics of Russia for a more detailed overview of the current and 20th century demographics.
Kievan Rus was a loose federation of East Slavic and Finno-Ugric peoples in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century. The population of Kievan Rus is estimated to have been between 4.5 million and 8 million, however in the absence of historical sources these estimates are
The lands of Rostov-Suzdal Principality were settled by Slavs in this period, with the native Finno-Permic speakers being gradually assimilated. In the North the territories between Onega and Ladoga lakes and along Svir, Northern Dvina and Vyatka rivers attracted Novgorodian sett
The population of Kievan Rus consisted of nobility, free and partially free peasants and kholops whose status was similar to that of slaves.
The first reliable data on the number of households dates to the late 15th century, when Ivan III carried out several censuses of the newly incorporated Novgorod land. As these censuses counted adult heads of households the total population estimates of Novgorod land vary between
The settlement of southern borderlands continued during this period. The former Wild Fields became safer as the new defence lines and fortresses were founded and its rich soils attracted settlers from the central Russia. The conquest of Siberia started in late 16th century and wi
Peasants constituted 90% of households in 1678, with 3% of townsfolk and 7% of untaxed classes according to the census of 1678. Serfs living on the lands belonging to the nobility, the church or the royal family accounted for the majority or the peasants, with the remainder consi
- Meaning in Slavic languages
- Kievan Rus'
Tsar, also spelled czar, or tzar or csar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe, originally the Bulgarian monarchs from 10th century onwards, much later a title for two rulers of the Serbian Empire, and from 1547 the supreme ruler of the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire. In this last capacity it lends its name to a system of government, tsarist autocracy or tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin word caesar, which was intende
The title tsar is derived from the Latin title for the Roman emperors, caesar. In comparison to the corresponding Latin word imperator, the Byzantine Greek term basileus was used differently depending on whether it was in a contemporary political context or in a historical or Biblical context. In the history of the Greek language, basileus had originally meant something like "potentate". It gradually approached the meaning of "king" in the Hellenistic Period, and it came to designate "emperor" a
citation needed] In 705 Emperor Justinian II named Tervel of Bulgaria "caesar", the first foreigner to receive this title, but his descendants continued to use Bulgar title "Kanasubigi". The sainted Boris I is sometimes retrospectively referred to as tsar, because at his time Bulgaria was converted to Christianity. However, the title "tsar" was actually adopted and used for the first time by his son Simeon I, following a makeshift imperial coronation performed by the Patriarch of Constantinople
"Tsar" was used once by church officials of Kievan Rus' in the naming of Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev. This may be connected to Yaroslav's war against Byzantium and to his efforts to distance himself from Constantinople. However, other princes of Kievan Rus' never styled themselves as tsars. Russian lands used the term tsar from 1547 when Knyaz Ivan IV the Terrible was officially crowned tsar of all Russia.
The title of tsar was used officially by two monarchs, the previous monarchial title being that of king. In 1345, Stefan Dušan began to style himself "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks", and was crowned as such in Skopje on Easter 1346 by the newly elevated Serbian patriarch, alongside the Bulgarian patriarch and archbishop of Ohrid. On the same occasion, he had his wife Helena of Bulgaria crowned as empress and his son associated in power as king. When Dušan died in 1355, his son Stefan Uroš ...
The first Russian ruler to openly break with the khan of the Golden Horde, Mikhail of Tver, assumed the title "basileus of Rus" and "czar", more commonly spelled "tsar". Władysław IV of Poland was the tsar of Russia during the Time of Troubles, when the Polish forces occupied Moscow. Following his assertion of independence from the khan, "Veliki Kniaz" Ivan III of Muscovy started to use the title of tsar regularly in diplomatic relations with the West. From about 1480, he is designated as ...
The history of Russia begins with the histories of the East Slavs. The traditional start-date of specifically Russian history is the establishment of the Rus' state in the north in 862 ruled by Vikings. Staraya Ladoga and Novgorod became the first major cities of the new union of immigrants from Scandinavia with the Slavs and Finno-Ugrians.
Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721) Russian Empire (1721–1917) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Tsarist Russia.
Tsardom of Russia Russian Empire first lathe with a mechanic cutting tool -supporting carriage and a set of gears , fast-fire battery on a rotating disc, screw mechanism for changing the artillery fire angle, gauge - boring lathe for cannon -making, early telescopic sight