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  2. Others The Basque language (or Euskara, c. 750,000) is a language isolate and the ancestral language of the Basque people who... North Caucasian languages is a geographical blanket term for two unrelated language families spoken chiefly in the north... Kalmyk is a Mongolic language, spoken in the ...

    • How History Influenced Nordic Language
    • Nordic Language Families
    • Old Norse
    • Icelandic
    • Faroese
    • The Scandinavian Languages
    • Can Scandinavians Understand Each other?
    • Finnish
    • Sami Languages
    • Other Nordic Languages

    Historically, many people living in the Nordic countrieswere able to understand each other. This shared linguistic ability has helped to bind the region together through shared literature and mutual understanding. While Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden are today all independent states, that's not always been the case. For many centuries...

    Most people know that Old Norse was used by the Vikings and spread across Northern Europethrough raids, trades and exploration. Old Norse has since developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish. Among those, Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility and are known...

    Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Iceland, Scandinavia and many of their overseas settlements throughout much of the Middle Ages. It is generally accepted to have transitioned into the North Germanic languages in the 14th and 15th centuries. If there's one word that can be used to describe Old Norse, it's diverse. It could be written in Younge...

    Spoken only in Iceland, modern Icelandic is the closest language to Old Norse still in use today. Although elements of the language have developed and no-one is quite sure how Old Norse would have sounded, the grammar and vocabulary remains similar. So much so that Iceland Magazine said modern Icelanders can read the medieval manuscripts “with litt...

    An estimated 72,000 Faroe Islandersspeak Faroese, which is related to Icelandic yet not mutually intelligible in speech. However, the written languages have much in common.

    While they descended from two different dialects of Old Norse, the languages of Danish, Norwegian and Swedish are mutually intelligible to a large extent. Some linguists argue they can be regarded as three strong dialects of a single Scandinavian language. Each language was heavily influenced by the long periods of political union, such as the Kalm...

    This is a tricky question! Recent researchshows that Norwegian is the easiest of the Nordic languages for other Nordic citizens to understand. 62% of young people from other Nordic countries find it “easy” to understand Norwegian, compared with just 26% for Danish. Danish, Norwegian and Swedish are the working languages of official Nordic co-operat...

    Now to throw a little curveball at you. Finnish (suomi in Finnish) is spoken by approximately 5.8 million people in Finlandand parts of Sweden, but it has nothing in common with the Scandinavian languages. Finnish comes from the Finnic group of the Uralic languages. Its closest relation is Estonian, while Finnish also shares morphology with Hungari...

    Also a member of the Uralic family, the Sami languages are spoken natively by less than 50,000 Sami people in Norway. Despite this, Sami does have official minority language status. The Sami languages are divided into two groups—western and eastern—but there are many further subdivisions. Mutual intelligibility varies considerably as many of the la...

    The Kven languageis spoken by the Kven people, a minority group in northern Norway with strong Finnish heritage. The language is at great risk of extinction with just 10,000 native speakers, the majority of retired age. Kven can best be described as a strong dialect of Finnish with a lot of Norwegian loan words plus some archaic Finnish terms. Gree...

    • North Germanic languages: Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish
    • West Germanic languages: English, German
    • Finnic languages: Finnish, Estonian
    • Baltic languages: Lithuanian, Latvian
  3. Ro­mance, Ger­manic, Baltic, Slavic, Hel­lenic, and Celtic lan­guages all be­long to the Indo-Eu­ro­pean lan­guage fam­ily, and the top-level fam­ily of branches of non-Indo-Eu­ro­pean lan­guages is al­ways given in paren­the­ses (ex­cept for Basque, which is a lan­guage fam­ily it­self). By the way, I have writ­ten sev­eral ed­u­ca­tional ebooks.

  4. Sep 22, 2023 · Published 22 September 2023 Insights, Research and Linguistics There are over 100 European languages spoken today. To celebrate European Day of Languages, Matt Norton looks at where these languages come from, how they’re connected, and how they got to where they are now.

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