- Recent History
- Public Holidays
- Foreign Policy
- Armed Forces - Y Lluoedd Arfog Gymreig
The Kingdom of Wales gained its independence during the 1st War of Independence against England (1400-1408). The war is called the Glyndwr Rebellion in England. Under the Treaty of London Henry IV recognised Welsh independence, under the English Crown and the Welsh borders were extended up the the banks of the River Severn for most of its length and then in a line along the Cheshire-Welsh border from Shrewsbury north. The realm recognised by Henry was a Principality, with Owain ruling as Owain IV, Prince of Wales, and the treaty bound both Owain and Wales to the English cause in Europe, even though during the war Wales had been allied to both France and the Avignon Papacy. This in part was the doing of the French king who brokered the Treaty along with the Welsh ambassadors, Gruffydd Young and John Hanmer. The House of Glyndwr (called variously the House of Mathrafal, House of Powys Fadog and the House of Powys Fadog-Glyndwr) then ruled Wales for another 199 years. The Dynasty fell...
The 20th Century saw some mixed fortunes for Wales. The century opened with the old king, Rhisiart IV, on the throne amid political chaos. Since the 1796 Restoration politics had changed in Wales. Previously the Senedd in Machynlleth had wielded if not great power then certainly an equalising power with the senior Nobility and the King making up the Welsh political triad. After the Restoration only two sides of the triad were restored. The Monarchy and the Nobility were restored to their rights but the Senedd was not. By the end of the 19th century, however, political unrest in Wales was high. In 1857 there had been an assassination attempt on Rhisiart III and again in 1867 and with the succession of his heir, Rhisiart IV there were riots in the capital Cardiff in 1870. Whilst the Senedd had not been reformed in its previous form, it was still used for tax raising purposes, but even in this form it met for the last time in 1880. In 1901 the political agitators scored their biggest s...
The following 14 days are the Public Holidays observed within the Welsh Kingdom 1. January 1st: Dydd Calan (New Years Day) 2. January 6th: Y Ystwyll (Epiphany) 3. March 1st: Dydd Gwyl Dewi (St Davids Day - National Saints Day) 4. Thursday before Easter: Dydd Iau Cablyd (Maundy Thursday) 5. Friday before Easter: Gwener y Groglith (Good Friday) 6. Monday following Easter Sunday (Dydd Pasg): Dydd Llun y Pasg (Easter Monday) 1. First Monday in May: Dydd Calan Mai (May Day) 2. Last Monday in May: Gwyl y Gwanwyn (Spring Holiday) 3. August 16th: Dydd Rhyddhad (Liberation Day - Date of the Invasion of Rhisiart I) 4. Last Monday in August: Gwyl yr Haf (Summer Holiday) 5. September 16th: Dydd Annibyniaeth (Independence Day or Proclamation of Owain, Tysog i Cymru) 6. December 25th: Dydd Nadolig (Christmas Day) 7. December 26th: Gwyl San Steffan (St Stephens Day or Boxing Day) 8. King's Official Birthday. This Public Holiday is usually taken on the date of the coronation. However, under the pre...
Wales is a constitutional monarchy, in the Anglo-Scottish fashion, with the king holding the theoretical powers to apoint and dismiss governments, declare war, and the Armed Forces swear allegiance to the Crown rather than Parliament. Important events in modern Welsh political history include the 1904 Constitution. This was the first modern constitution for the Welsh kingdom and codified for the first time since Dafydd IV the place and role of the Senedd. The 1904 Constitution for the first time detailed the King's powers and prerogatives, and confirmed the two Houses of the Senedd, the Ty Uchaf (Upper House) and the Ty Isod (Lower House) or Cynulliad (Assembly). The Ty Uchaf's members were appointed by the monarch with the Cynulliad's members elected by popular sufferage. The Five Year Autocracy (1920-25) saw an upsetting of the new political order and the remainder of the 1920's and 30's saw political instability within the kingdom. The 1952 Constitution was in part imposed by the...
Wales is a member of the European Union and various international agencies such as NATO, the UN and the WEU. As a Western democracy its foreign policy tends to follow the European norms. Due to decades of heavy American involvement in the Welsh Kingdom, the country does tend to follow the American lead in foreign policy as well as mirroring many UK-ES policies. It does differ slightly over issues, however. Wales has long been a supporter of Argentina over its claims to the Falkland Islands and during the Iraq Invasion Wales held back from committing troops to the conflict. During the Afghan Conflict, however, Wales has contributed troops to the coalition's efforts in that country. Since the mid 1980's Wales has also cultivated close ties with China and other Asian countries such as Japan, Malaysia as well as renewing cordial relations with Russia.
Within the Kingdom of Wales, sport splits the country almost in two. The Marcher Country (Y Mers, Henffordd, Dean and Ergyng), Gwent, Morgannwg, and Tiroedd y De (Southlands - Gwlad yr Haf and Dyfnaint Glan Hafren) is dominated by Football and Rugby Union with the English game of Cricketimported during the occupation. West and North Wales is an area dominated by Gaelic sports, particularly Gaelic Football and Hurling, with teams from Tyddewi, Ceredigion, Llŷn and Môn competing in the Irish Leagues of those sports.
The Welsh Armed Forces(Y Lluoedd Arfog Gymreig) are divided into the following 1. Byddin Frenhiniol Gymreig(BFG - Royal Welsh Army RWA) 1. Llynges Frenhiniol Gymreig(LFG - Royal Welsh Navy RWN) 1. Llu Awyr Frenhiniol Gymreig(LAFG - Royal Welsh Air Force RWAF) The BFG in particular is viewed as one of the most effective in the world, and units from it are often in many far flung areas of the globe serving with both NATO and the UN. The LFG is a medium-sized fleet. The fleet is split into a blue ocean fleet and a brown water (shore support) fleet. The fleet still maintains two aircraft carriers with the associated close support ships though the political pressure to decommission this aspect of the fleet is now intense in Welsh politics. The fleet also contains a strong diesel electric submarine flotilla. The LAFG is probably the least developed of the Welsh Armed Forces. With England defending the southern and eastern approaches and the newly independent Scotland guarding the northern...
Chepstow (Welsh: Cas-gwent) is a town and community in Monmouthshire, Wales, adjoining the border with Gloucestershire, England. It is located on the tidal River Wye , about 2 miles (3.2 km) above its confluence with the River Severn, and adjoining the western end of the Severn Bridge.
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- Gentle Reader
- The Welsh Sources and Earliest Viking Contacts
- Norse Accounts of Contacts with Wales
- Welsh Names For The Northmen
- Wales: A Target For The Norse-Irish Raiders
- A Chronology of Viking Raids Into Wales
- Scandinavian Influence on Welsh Art, Music and Literature
- Norse Settlements in Wales
- Christian Norsemen and Wales
Although Wales did not experience significant Viking settlement such as occurred in Ireland and in England, still Wales felt the blows of the Northerners. Wales was repeatedly raided, especially by the Norse from the Hiberno-Norse kingdoms of Dublin and Limerick. During the period of the Viking attacks, Wales was divided into several independent kingdoms which were constantly engaged in internal struggles and internecine warfare, which rendered the Welsh unable to present a united front to ward off the new threat from overseas with complete success. Kings like Rhodri ap Merfyn, known as Rhodri Mawr (the Great, 844 to 878 AD) and Hywel Dda (the Good, 900 to 950 AD) were able to rally large numbers of Welshmen to the defense of their lands with a stubborn resistance, preventing the formation of large Norse kingdoms such as existed elsewhere in the British Isles. Eventually Wales became a place of pilgrimage and religious instruction in later years for the Christianized descendants of...
The first certain notice of a Viking raid upon Wales occurs in all the Welsh Chronicles (Annales Cambriae, Brut y Tywysogion and Brut y Saeson) in the annals for the year 850 AD (note 1), when a certain Cyngen died on the swords of "the Heathen." Some scholars believe that Viking incursions into Wales began even earlier, suggesting that the Vikings who raided the Church on Recru or Lombay Island in 795 AD had sailed there from Wales. The inhabitants of Cornwall, known as the West Welsh, were in contact with the Viking raiders as early as 835 AD, when they contracted with the Danes to fight against the Anglo-Saxon King Ecgberht who had subjugated the Cornish in 823. This alliance of Northman with Welshman against the English was to recur again many times in the coming years. Traditional Welsh poetry also records the Scandinavian presence in Wales; For example, the Arymes Prydein Vawr or "Omen of Great Britain" composed sometime between 835 and 1066 AD and preserved in the 13th centur...
When the sagas mention Wales, it is called Bretland in Old Norse. Landnámabók, the Icelandic Book of Settlements (ca. 1130 AD), says in its Prologue that Iceland ("Thule") is six day's sail north of Wales: Heimskringla recounts that Harald hárfagri gave his favorite son, Eiríkr bloðøx, the ships and men to go viking when the boy was only twelve years old, ca. 905 to 910 AD: Later, Heimskringla tells us that Haraldr outfitted his other sons, Þórgísl and Fróði, in the same manner, and . . . fóru þeir í vesturvíking og herjuðu um Skotland og Bretland og Írland.[. . . they went on Viking expeditions to the West, harrying in Scotland, Bretland, and Ireland.] Eiríkr bloðøx followed his father Haraldr to the Norwegian throne around 930 AD, but was forced to flee to England by his half-brother Hakon in about 935. The English king Æþelstan gave York to Eiríkr in return for Eirík's conversion to Christianity. While King of York, Heimskringla recounts in Hákonar saga Aðalsteinsfóstra: But when...
The first raiders were Norwegians, known to the Irish as Finn Gaill, for in 854, the chronicles record a new type of Northman appearing upon the Welsh shores. Like the Irish, who called the Danes Dubh Gaillor "black foreigners," the Welsh called the new sea-rovers appearing upon their shores various names describing them as "black": 1. gentiles nigri(the black heathen) 2. y llu du(the black host) 3. kenhedloedd duon(the black nations) 4. y Normanyeit duon(black Normans) 5. dub gint (black heathen, from Irish dubh Gennti) 6. Brithwyr du(black Brithwyr) 7. dieifyl du(black devils) Some Welsh terms for the Vikings referred to the heathen, non-Christian ways of the Norse Invaders: 1. Gentiles"gentiles" 2. Paganaid"pagans" Other Welsh names for the Vikings included: 1. Y Cenhedloedd(the nations) 2. Nordmani(northmen) 3. gwyr Dulyn(men from Dublin) 4. y genedyl(the nation) 5. y pobloedd(the peoples) 6. Gwyddyl(Irish, but referring in actuality to the Hiberno-Norse) 7. Daenysseit(Danes) 8....
Wales, in its central position, situated between the Viking kingdoms of Ireland and the Danelaw, was certain to receive the attentions of the Norse sea-raiders. The Welsh coastline, and particularly the island of Anglesey, was a particular target for Hiberno-Norse aggression, being situated conveniently close to the Norse colony of Dublin. Anglesey was attractive to the raiders, not only being the home of the monastic establishments of Penmon, Ynys Seirol and Caer Gybi, but also as Giraldus Cambrensis states in his Descripto Kambriae, It is uncertain whether or not the Norse settled the island, but it seems likeley when one considers that the original Welsh name for the island, Mona, was completely replaced by the Old Norse Öngulseyor Anglesey (though Welsh texts continue to use "Mona" until the present day). Return to Top795 ADSome scholars believe that Viking incursions into Wales began in this year, suggesting that the Vikings who raided the Church on Recru or Lombay Island had sailed there from a previous attack...835 ADThe inhabitants of Cornwall (the West Welsh) were in contact with the Viking raiders whom they contracted with to fight against the Anglo-Saxon King Ecgberht. Ecgberht had subjugated the Corn...850 ADWelsh Annals record that one Cyngen died on the swords of "the Heathen," meaning Viking raiders.850 to 870 ADThe southern Welsh districts of Gwent, Glamorgan and Dyfedd suffer Norse attacks.
King Gruffydd ap Cynan of Gwynedd, of Norse ancestry himself and raised in the Norse court at Dublin, did much to introduce Scandinavian influences into Welsh art, music, and literature. Gruffydd brought Norse-Irish skalds to court as well as patronizing Welsh bards. Literary parallels between the Welsh Mabinogion and Irish sagas display borrowings by the Welsh tales from the Irish. Scandinavian influences also played a significant role, especially in the tale of Branwen ferch Llyr or The Mabinogi of Branwen, which shows themes from the Nibelungeleid and the Guðrun cycles, Volsunga saga, and Þidreks saga. Scandinavian themes also find a place in the History of Gruffydd ap Cynan, where Gruffydd's ancestry is said to include King Haraldr Harfagra, the famous Viking Rollo, and Saint Óláfr the King. Musical traditions in Wales were also influenced by Gruffydd's taste for the Irish pipes, as well as for harping in the Hiberno-Norse style. Gruffydd maintained a royal harper, Gellan or Cre...
Due to the fact that the Welsh managed such a dogged resistance to invasion, the Scandinavians never established the large and prosperous settlements in Wales such as they had in England and Ireland. It is widely accepted that a colony of Scandinavians settled on both sides of the great fjord of Milford Haven in South Pembrokeshire. There may also have been a Norse colony in Gower, the peninsula that extends about 18 miles westward of Swansea. Another Scandinavian settlement in Wales was situated in the low-lying coastal plain between Neath, Cardiff, and Newport, which was a part of the kingdoms of Morgannwg and Gwent. In Glamorgan, the evidence of charters shows a significant number of Norse names, indicating a Scandinavian settlement in that area as well. Many of the Scandinavians living in Wales were traders. The commodities that they dealt in were varied, but the largest and most lucrative trade was in Welsh slaves. After slaves, the next most valuable trade was in wheat, for Ir...
As Christianity became more widespread in Northern Europe, eventually even the fierce Northmen were converted to the Christian faith. Although the Welsh did not contribute extensively to the conversion of the northern pagans, some Scandinavians came to Wales on pilgrimage, for religious instruction, and to enter holy orders. At Penmon in Anglesey was the most celebrated religious seminary in Gwynedd, which eventually became a popular location for Christian Norsement to attend. The institution of Penmon had a subordinate house on Ynys Lannog, which by medieval times was being called Ynys Seriol, after Saint Seriol, the founder of the Penmon house, but this secondary location was so heavily patronised by Norse converts that it eventually became known only by the Norse name Priesthólm. Return to Top
(1) From about 850 AD, the various Welsh chronicles are one year behind the true reckoning, thus when a Welsh chronicle indicates that an event occrred in 850, the event is properly dated to 851 AD. Dates listed in this article are corrected dates rather than the actual incorrect dates from the chronicles. (2) From about 1040 AD, the Welsh chronicles are two years behind the true reckoning. In other words, if the Welsh Chronicle states that an event occurred in 1040, the actual date should be 1042 AD.
Oct 05, 2017 · The kingdom of Gwent lay between the rivers Wye and Usk and existed from the end of Roman rule in the 5th century until the Norman conquest of the 11th century. Its courts and diocese were separate...
Celts of Cymru. Wales / Cymru. The country of Wales (or Cymru in the Welsh language) did not exist as a concept until the unconquered British were eventually hemmed into the westernmost regions of the country by the invading Angles, Jutes, and Saxons. The fall of the West Midland territory of Pengwern in AD 656 moved the Brito-Welsh border to ...
Wales in the Middle Ages. Wales in the Middle Ages covers the history of the country that is now called Wales, from the departure of the Romans in the early fifth century, until the annexation of Wales into the Kingdom of England in the early sixteenth century.
Answered 3 years ago · Author has 384 answers and 451.3K answer views. The definitive answer is usually 1536, when Henry VIII proclaimed himself Prince of Wales, giving him complete legal sovereignty. Wales had already been de facto under the control of England for around 300 years, however, to varying degrees.
The Welsh Marches (Welsh: Y Mers) is an imprecisely defined area along the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom. The precise meaning of the term has varied at different periods. The precise meaning of the term has varied at different periods.
Sep 12, 2018 · Welsh independence ended with Edward I's conquest between 1277 and 1283. But Wales did not become a part of the Kingdom of England at this point, still having its own laws. This was until the Laws...
Dec 30, 2017 · The Viking attacks on the native Welsh is often overlooked for the better-recorded attacks and battles with the Saxons of England. The Viking raids on Saxon England is the subject of many documentaries and books. (probably 100s) Most of these don't even mention the natives of the islands, especially the Welsh.
- related to: When did Gwent become part of the Kingdom of Wales?