- Although kamishibai is often described as a manifestation of Japan’s long and rich tradition of etoki(picture explaining), which can be traced back to the 10thcentury when Buddhist picture scrolls were narrated by itinerant priests and nuns (Kaminishi), it would be misleading to argue that this makes kamishibai an “ancient” art form.
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1 In this article, I will follow the Japanese name order, which has the last name first. 2 One of her best know books is titled Kamishibai no hajimari hajimari: Kamishibai no jōzuna enjikata (Kamishibai is about to begin: How to perform kamishibai), published in 1986 by Dōshinsha.
I said that there are no absolute rules about kamishibai. I just wanted them to know what the Japanese kamishibai traditions are like but that they should keep experimenting and creating their own works. Even in Japan, kamishibai did not start out in its present form and has gone through many transformations.
Apr 04, 2020 · Once upon a time, a form of storytelling called kamishibai (literally, “paper drama”) was very popular in Japan. It was the Great Depression of the 1930s, and jobs were scarce.
- Hira-E: The New Kamishibai
- Published Educational Kamishibai
- Kokusaku (Government Policy) Kamishibai
- Post-War Kamishibai
- The Globalization of Kamishibai
Because of their often sensationalistic content, street performances of all kinds were subject to frequent bans by the authorities, and kamishibai was no exception. In 1929, when tachi-e was undergoing a ban, three street performers in Tokyo (Takahashi Seizō, Gotō Terakura, and Tanaka Jirō) put their heads together to develop a new form of picture-storytelling that they hoped would enable them to pull the wool over the authorities’ eyes. By 1930 they had created the first story entitled The Palace of Fantasy (Mahō no goten, artist: Nagamatsu Takeo; story: Gotō Terakura; other sources cite the title as Otogi no goten). They dubbed this new form of storytelling “new picture-stories”(shin e-banashi) to make it appear innocent and harmless, but their audiences were not so easily fooled and took to calling it kamishibai. This new form of kamishibai emulated visual techniques from yet another global medium that had taken audiences in Japan by storm—silent film. In Japan, early films were...
In the early 1930s, Japan was suffering from a world-wide depression that sent the unemployed from all walks of life into the streets. With few other options, many became gaitō kamishibai performers. The new hira-estyle of kamishibai did not require extensive training, and almost anyone with a bicycle, a stage, and a voice could set up in the trade. Soon, there were as many as 30,000 street-performers roaming urban neighborhoods throughout Japan. It did not take long for educators, parents, and government authorities to begin looking at this new kamishibai with deep suspicion. The overwhelming popularity of the new kamishibai meant that large crowds of unsupervised children were gathering on busy street corners, creating potentially hazardous conditions. The treats the kamishibai performers offered were handled without any apparent concern for sanitation, and the garish colors used by the street-performance artists were thought to be too stimulating for children. Finally, the questi...
Without this increase in publishers of educational kamishibai, it is unlikely that Japan’s militaristic government would have called upon kamishibai to play such a pivotal role as a media for propaganda in the build up to World War II. By the beginning of World War II (1941-1945) and middle of the second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), published kamishibai like all other media had come under the control of the government censors, and the stories had to closely align with the policies set forth by the Imperialist government. Whereas the gaitōstreet-performers had freely adlibbed and interacted with audiences, with government policy kamishibai, performers were required to read the text on the backs of the cards precisely as written. No longer were the performers of kamishibai enlisted from the unemployed and disenfranchised on the margins of society. Instead, teachers and local authorities were trained to read the government sanctioned kamishibai verbatim. Audiences were expected to li...
The use of kamishibai for propaganda during World War II made it an object of particular scrutiny when the war ended. General Douglas MacArthur and the Allied Powers were anxious to purge Japan of its former Imperialist ambitions, and kamishibai performers after the war had to get their stamp of approval. Nonetheless, people turned once again in droves to gaitō kamishibai for many of the same reasons that they had before the war—poverty, displacement, and a desire to forget ones immediate suffering. Street performance artists quickly reorganized to fill the demand for cheap entertainment. Whereas there had been an estimated 30,000 street-performance artists before the war, the numbers nearly doubled to over 50, 000 in the years following. Instead of candy, the storytellers would scrounge around for any food items they could make or sell. Since most urban centers in Japan had been the targets of bombing, few pre-war kamishibai cards survived, but many of the popular series were reviv...
Perhaps the biggest growth in interest in kamishibai as a format is happening outside Japan. Artists and kamishibai practitioners involved in the tezukuri kamishibai movement have actively been transporting kamishibai to countries throughout Asia and the middle-east to encourage local artists to create their own stories. Gaitō street performance artists have toured throughout the world, inspiring street-performers from England and Australia to Spain and Peru to construct stages for the backs of bicycles and emulate the gaitō style of kamishibai performance. Animé and mangafans the world over are becoming interested in kamishibai as a precursor of these globally popular visual media. In New York, Margaret Eisenstadt and Donna Tamaki of Kamishibai for Kids have made Japanese kamishibai cards available in English translation, and Moon Leaf Arts: Story Card Theater in California publishes their own smaller versions of the kamishibai cards and stage. In France, Callicéphale has published...
Jan 04, 2017 · Kamishibai, or “paper theater,” started as a Buddhist practice in Japan in the late 1920s. The illustrations on scrolls were used to spread their doctrine. Eventually, it evolved into more secular stories. The storyteller, usually a candy seller, uses his bicycle strapped with a small wooden stage at the back.
This folktale was taken from a “kamishibai” made and sent to Julia Morris by Sachiko Miyata, Oita City, Kyushu Island, Japan. Picture # 1 - Long, long ago in a certain place there lived an old man and an old woman. By taking firewood to town every day and selling it, they were barely able to make a living.
Superhero fiction is the genre of fiction that is centered on such characters, especially in American comic books since the 1930s (and later Hollywood films), as well as in Japanese media (including kamishibai, tokusatsu, manga, anime, and video games) since the 1930s. Superheroes come from a wide array of different backgrounds and origins.
Jun 05, 2013 · To make mugicha this way, bring water up to a boil, throw in the loose grains or a tea bag, lower the heat and let simmer for a couple of minutes. Turn the heat off and let cool in the pan to room temperature, then strain and chill in the fridge. Allow one tea bag or 2-3 tablespoons of loose grains per liter (about a quart) of water.