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  1. Catholic League | Catholic military alliance | Britannica

    Catholic League, a military alliance (1609–35) of the Catholic powers of Germany led by Maximilian I, duke of Bavaria, and designed to stem the growth of Protestantism in Germany. In alliance with the Habsburg emperors, the League’s forces, led by Johann Tserclaes, Graf von Tilly, played a key role

  2. Protestant Union | German military alliance | Britannica

    …and Calvinist rulers formed a Protestant Union (1608), the answer to which was the Catholic League (1609), headed by Maximilian, the most resolute Catholic prince in the empire. Each party organized an army and allied itself with foreign powers, the Protestants with France and Bohemia, the Catholics with Spain.

  3. Torgauer Bund | German religious league | Britannica

    Other articles where Torgauer Bund is discussed: Torgau: In 1526 the Torgauer Bund (Torgau League), a league of evangelical princes against the Roman Catholic princes, was formed there. During that period the religious reformer Martin Luther was active in Torgau, where he wrote the league’s constitution (the Torgau Articles, 1530). His wife, Katherina von Bora, is…

  4. Sonderbund | Swiss political organization | Britannica

    Sonderbund, (German: Separatist League) league formed on Dec. 11, 1845, by the seven Catholic Swiss cantons (Luzern, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug, Fribourg, and Valais) to oppose anti-Catholic measures by Protestant liberal cantons. The term Sonderbund also refers to the civil war that resulted

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  6. League of the Rhine | Europe [1658] | Britannica

    Other articles where League of the Rhine is discussed: Johann Christian, baron von Boyneburg: …a principal negotiator of the League of the Rhine (1658), whereby a number of German states, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, secured a French guarantee against any attempt by the new Holy Roman emperor, Leopold I, to restore Habsburg domination.

  7. Lutheran church organization and confessionalization - Britannica

    Germany - Germany - Lutheran church organization and confessionalization: The 1525 revolution was but one of several upheavals worrying German rulers. Three years earlier a group of imperial knights led by Franz von Sickingen had declared a feud against the archbishop of Trier, claiming to derive from scripture their right to despoil Roman Catholic prelates.

  8. History of Europe - The triumph of the Catholics, 1619–29 ...

    History of Europe - History of Europe - The triumph of the Catholics, 1619–29: Frederick V entered Prague and was crowned king by the rebel Estates in October 1619, but already the Catholic net was closing around him. The axis linking Vienna with Munich, Brussels, and Madrid enjoyed widespread support: subsidies came from Rome and Genoa, while Tuscany and Poland sent troops. Equally serious ...

  9. Battle of White Mountain | European history [1620] | Britannica

    Nov 01, 2020 · Battle of White Mountain, (Nov. 8, 1620), battle fought near Prague in Bohemia. The battle marked the first major victory of the Roman Catholic Habsburgs over the Protestant Union, a military alliance among the Protestant states of Germany, in the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48).

  10. Germany - Religion and politics, 1555–1618 | Britannica

    Germany - Germany - Religion and politics, 1555–1618: Four forces contended for supremacy in the Holy Roman Empire in the aftermath of the Peace of Augsburg. Lutherans—that is to say, Lutheran estates and governments—sought to extend the rights they had won in 1555 to parts of Germany that were still Roman Catholic. Calvinists, having been excluded from the Augsburg settlement, strove ...

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