The 11th century is the period from 1001 through 1100 in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the 1st century of the 2nd millennium.. In the history of Europe, this period is considered the early part of the High Middle Ages.
The 11th century BC comprises all years from 1100 BC to 1001 BC.Although many human societies were literate in this period, some of the individuals mentioned below may be apocryphal rather than historically accurate.
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11th or 12th century – Betha Meic Creiche (Life of Mac Creiche, in Middle Irish) c. 11th century – The Records of Origin on Things and Affairs (事物纪原), by Gao Cheng; Heian period. Sarashina Nikki (更級日記, a travel diary) by Takasue's Daughter
- Investiture Controversy
- Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria
- Spread of Christianity
Christianity in the 11th century is marked primarily by the Great Schism of the Church, which formally divided the State church of the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western branches. In 1054, following the death of the Patriarch of Rome Leo IX, papal legates from Rome traveled to Constantinople to deny Michael Cerularius, the reigning Patriarch of Constantinople, the title of Ecumenical Patriarch and to insist that he recognize the Church of Rome's claim to be the head and mother of the churches
The first major phase of the struggle between Church and state in medieval Europe was marked by the Investiture Controversy between emperor and Pope over the right to make church appointments. The Papacy were the initial victors, but as Italians divided between Guelphs and Ghibellines in factions that were often passed down through families or states until the end of the Middle Ages, the dispute gradually weakened the Papacy, not least by drawing it into politics. In 1059 the Church attempted to
Emperor Basil II Porphyrogenitus sought to restore former territories of the Byzantine Empire. By 1000, Basil II had fought off his own nobility and defeated the Islamic threat from the east, and so led another invasion of Bulgaria. Bulgaria had been partly subjugated by John I Tzimiskes after the invasion of Svyatoslav I of Kiev but parts of the country had remained outside Byzantine control under the leadership of Samuel and his brothers. This time instead of marching into the middle of the co
With the division and decline of the Carolingian Empire, notable theological activity was preserved in some of the Cathedral schools that had begun to rise to prominence under it – for instance at Auxerre in the 9th century or Chartres in the 11th. Intellectual influences ...
One of the major developments in monasticism during the 11th century was the height of the Cluniac reforms, which centred upon Cluny Abbey in Burgundy, which controlled a large centralised order with over two hundred monasteries throughout Western Christendom. Cluny championed a revived Papacy during this century and encouraged stricter monastic discipline with a return to the principles of the Benedictine Rule. Cluny Abbey promoted art and literature, and the liturgy at the Romanesque abbey chu
The spread Christianity was reversed temporarily in Poland, as the pagan reaction in Poland saw many churches and monasteries burned, and priests killed.
Scandinavia was the last part of Germanic Europe to convert and most resistant. From the High Middle Ages, the territories of Northern Europe were gradually converted to Christianity under German leadership and made into nation states under the Church's guidance, finalized in the
Many Goths converted to Christianity as individuals outside the Roman Empire. Most members of other tribes converted Christian when their respective tribes settled within the empire, and most Franks and Anglo-Saxons converted a few generations later. During the later centuries fo
Wikimedia Commons has media related to 11th century by country.: Subcategories. This category has the following 72 subcategories, out of 72 total.
This page is part of the List of years in poetry: Centuries in poetry:: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century: Decades in poetry:: 1000s 1010s 1020s 1030s 1040s 1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikimedia Commons has media related to 11th-century births. ← People born in the 11th century → 1000s births – 1001 • 1002 • 1003 • 1004 • 1005 • 1006 • 1007 • 1008 • 1009 • 1010
- Early life
- Co-empress with Zoë
- Return to power
Theodora Porphyrogenita was Byzantine Empress from 19 April 1042 to her death on 31 August 1056. She was sole ruler from 11 January 1055. She was born into the Macedonian dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost two hundred years. Theodora became involved in political matters only late into her life. Her father Constantine VIII was co-ruler of the Byzantine Empire for 63 years then sole emperor from 1025 to 1028. After he died his older daughter, Zoë, co-ruled with her husbands...
Theodora was the third and youngest daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VIII and Helena, daughter of Alypius.:503 She was Porphyrogenita,:259 "born into the purple"; this was the appellation for a child born in the capital to a reigning emperor. Her father became co-emperor in 962 and sole emperor upon the death of his brother Basil II in 1025. His reign as sole emperor lasted less than three years, from 15 December 1025 to 15 November 1028.:503–504 As an eligible imperial ...
With Michael IV's death in December 1041, Zoë adopted Michael's nephew, who was crowned as Michael V.:495 Although he promised to respect Zoë, he promptly banished her to a monastery on the Princes' Islands on charges of attempted regicide. This treatment of the legitimate heir to the Macedonian dynasty caused a popular uprising in Constantinople, and on 19 April 1042, the people revolted against Michael V in support of not only Zoë, but Theodora as well. Michael V, desperate to keep his ...
After Zoë's death in 1050, Theodora seems to have retired to a convent, leaving Constantine IX to rule alone until his own death on 11 January 1055. As Constantine lay dying, he was persuaded by his councilors, chiefly the logothetes tou dromou John, to ignore the rights of Theodora and to pass the throne to the doux of the Byzantine Theme of Bulgaria, Nikephoros Proteuon.:527 However, Theodora preempted their plans when, despite her advanced age, she vigorously asserted her right to rule ...