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  1. 8 maart - Wikipedia

    nl.wikipedia.org › wiki › 8_maart

    8 maart - Wikipedia 8 maart 8 maart is de 67ste dag van het jaar (68ste dag in een schrikkeljaar) in de gregoriaanse kalender. Hierna volgen nog 298 dagen tot het einde van het jaar.

  2. 8 Maart - Wikipedia

    af.wikipedia.org › wiki › 8_Maart

    8 Maart in Wikipedia, die vrye ensiklopedie 8 Maart is die 67ste dag van die jaar in die Gregoriaanse kalender (68ste in skrikkeljare). Daar volg nog 298 dae in die res van die jaar.

  3. Internationale Vrouwendag - Wikipedia

    nl.wikipedia.org › wiki › Internationale_Vrouwendag
    • Geschiedenis
    • Nederland
    • België
    • Italië
    • Wetenswaardigheden
    • Externe Links

    Op 8 maart 1908 vond in New York de eerste staking door vrouwen plaats. De staking was gericht tegen de slechte arbeidsomstandigheden in de textielindustrieen is beroemd geworden door onder meer de poëtisch verwoorde eis van de vrouwen: "brood en rozen". De staking was het prille begin van de strijd voor de vrouwenemancipatie en tegen de ongelijkheid. In 1910 deed de Duitse socialiste Clara Zetkin (1857-1933) tijdens de Internationale Vrouwenconfentie, een conferentie voor socialistische vrouwen, in Kopenhagen het voorstel om 8 maart uit te roepen tot Internationale Vrouwendag. Deze datum werd echter niet overal aangehouden. In Nederlandwerd de eerste Vrouwendag gevierd op 12 maart 1912. In 1917 brak op 8 maart opnieuw een staking uit vanwege de slechte arbeidsomstandigheden in de textielindustrie, nu in het Russische Sint-Petersburg. Mede als gevolg hiervan verkoos het Internationale Vrouwensecretariaat van de Communistische of Derde Internationalein 1921, 8 maart definitief tot da...

    In Nederland viert een grote verscheidenheid aan vrouwengroepen en vrouwenorganisaties 8 maart op veel verschillende manieren, bijvoorbeeld door het vieren van de verjaardag van Rick. Het doel is aandacht te vragen voor thema's zoals economische zelfstandigheid, empowerment, seksueel geweld, zorg en arbeid, discriminatie en racisme.

    In België wordt sinds 1972 de Nationale Vrouwendag georganiseerd op 11 november met uitzondering van 2005, toen de viering plaatsvond op 16 oktober. Deze traditie gaat terug op de eerste V-dag die het toenmalige Vrouwen Overleg Komitee op wapenstilstand organiseerde omdat de Franse Simone de Beauvoir en Australische Germaine Greerdie dag in Brussel konden komen spreken. In 2003 diende senator Fatma Pehlivan (sp.a) een wetsvoorstel in om ook in België 8 maart aan te houden en officieel tot nationale feestdagte verklaren. De behandeling van dit voorstel sleept al sinds 2004 voort.

    In Italië werd de Dag van de Vrouw voor het eerst gevierd in 1922, op initiatief van de Italiaanse Communistische Partij. De eerste keer werd deze dag echter op 12 maart gevierd, de eerste zondag na 8 maart, omdat op die dag al het begin van de Februarirevolutie van 1917 herdacht werd. In die tijd werd het veertiendaags tijdschrift Compagna opgericht, waarin op 1 maart 1925 een artikel werd gepubliceerd over Vladimir Lenin, die een jaar eerder stierf. In het artikel werd ook de aandacht gevestigd op 8 maart als Internationale Vrouwendag, aangezien vrouwen actief hadden deelgenomen aan de sociale strijd en de verwerping van het tsarisme. In september 1944 werd in Rome de Italiaanse vrouwenunie (Unione Donne in Italia, UDI) opgericht, aanvankelijk door vrouwen die lid waren van de politieke partijen PCI, PSI, Partito d'Azione, Sinistra Cristiana en Democrazia del Lavoro. De UDI was in 1945 initiatiefneemster van het op 8 maart vieren van de Dag van de Vrouw in het bevrijde deel van It...

    In Nederland was Vrouwendag of Lieve Vrouwendag tot zeker in de zeventiende eeuw de benaming van 2 februari. De naam van deze dag komt van "Onze Lieve Vrouwe Lichtmis", omdat op die dag Maria Licht...
    In 1999 werd in Trinidad en Tobago het initiatief genomen tot een Internationale Mannendag op 19 november. Officieel erkend is de Internationale Mannendag echter niet. In de voormalige Sovjetrepubl...
  4. 8 maart - Wikiwand

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    8 maart is de 67ste dag van het jaar in de gregoriaanse kalender. Hierna volgen nog 298 dagen tot het einde van het jaar. For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for 8 maart .

  5. 8 maart - Wikipedy

    fy.wikipedia.org › wiki › 8_maart
    • Foarfallen
    • Berne
    • Ferstoarn
    1669: De fulkaan de Etna barstet út. De histoarysk grutste erupsje hâldt wol oan oant 11 july oan. De stêd Cataniawurdt foar in part en in pear doarpen hielendal mei lave bedekt. 20.000 Minsken kom...
    1817 - De New York Stock Exchangewurdt stifte.
    1865 - Der wurdt in begjin makke mei it ôfgraven fan de dunen by Breesaap foar de oanlis fan it Noardseekanaal.
    1930 - Mahatma Gandhi start in boargerlikewanhearrigensaksje yn Yndia.
    1714 - Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Dútsk komponist († 1788)
    1748 - Willem V fan Oranje-Nassau, steedhâlder fan 'e Republyk fan de Feriene Nederlannen († 1806)
    1827 - Wilhelm Bleek, Dútsk taalkundige († 1875)
    1845 - Rindert van Zinderen Bakker, Frysk skriuwer en politikus († 1927)
    1129 - greve Gearard I fan Gelre (* 1068)
    1869 - Hector Berlioz, Frânsk komponist (* 1803)
    1917 - Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Dútsk útfiner fan it loftskip (* 1838)
    1937 - Albert Verwey, Nederlânsk letterkundige (* 1865)
  6. 8 maart - Wikiwand

    www.wikiwand.com › fy › 8_maart

    8 maart is de 67e dei fan it jier op de Gregoriaanske kalinder . Der folgje noch 298 dagen oan 'e ein fan it jier ta. For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for 8 maart .

  7. 8 Maart: Internasionale Vrouedag; Moedersdag in Albanië 1618 – Johannes Kepler ontdek die derde wet van planetêre beweging . 1702 – Prinses Anna van die Huis van Stuart word koningin van Engeland , Skotland en Ierland .

  8. User:Ciell/Kladblok 8 maart - Meta

    meta.wikimedia.org › wiki › User:Ciell

    Help make improvements to Women's biographies on Wikipedia. 20 minutes Improve with source reference: Choose one of the articles on women that need to be addressed by source: Improve Women's biographies with citations. 20 minutes Translate articles to Swedish and other languages

  9. Project X Haren - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Project_X_Haren

    Project X Haren was an event that started out as a public invitation to a birthday party by a girl on Facebook, but ended up as a gathering of thousands of youths causing riots on 21 September 2012 in the town of Haren, Groningen, Netherlands.

  10. Bersiap - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Bersiap
    • Term
    • Indonesian Independence Declared
    • The Start of The Revolution
    • Formation of The Republican Government
    • Allied Occupation
    • Landing of Nica
    • Phases
    • Post Bersiap Period
    • Propaganda
    • Guerrilla Warfare

    This particular phase of the Indonesian revolution is termed Bersiap by Dutch Indo (Eurasian) survivors of the period and is used in academic works in Dutch and English. The term is derived from the Indonesian battle cry and perpetual call to arms: "Siap!" – "Get Ready!"heard when potential enemies of the revolution were entering pro-republican areas. Today the term Bersiap killingsis also used to avoid confusion.

    On 15 August 1945, the Japanese surrendered to the Allies. As there was, for the most part, no Allied re-conquest of the western part of the Dutch East Indies (The eastern islands were already occupied by the Allies), the Japanese were still in charge on Java and Sumatra and had received specific orders to maintain the status quo until Allied forces arrived on these islands. Sukarno, Hatta, and the older leadership were hesitant to act and did not want to provoke conflict with the Japanese.Vice Admiral Maeda Tadashi, fearing volatile youth groups, and the demoralised Japanese troops, wanted a quick transfer of power to the older generation of Indonesian leaders. While the older nationalist leadership group, including Sukarno and Hatta, were reluctant, younger members of the new elite, the 'youth' (Indonesian: pemuda), believed they had a duty to push for revolution. A group associated with Menteng 31 kidnapped both Sukarno and Hatta and forced them to agree to declaring Indonesian i...

    It was mid-September before news of the declaration of independence spread across the island Java, and many Indonesians far from the capital Jakarta did not believe it. As the news spread, most Indonesians came to regard themselves as pro-Republican, and a mood of revolution swept across the country. External power had shifted; it would be weeks before the Allied Forces entered the island of Java, and the Dutch were too weakened by World War II. The Japanese, on the other hand, were required by the terms of the surrender to both lay down their arms and maintain order; a contradiction that some resolved by handing weapons to Japanese-trained Indonesians. At the time of the surrender, there were 70,000 Japanese troops in Java and Sukarno and Hatta were concerned that celebratory independence rallies would result in the guns of Japanese troops being turned on Indonesian crowds.While the older leadership set about constructing a government on paper, they could do little to kerb younger...

    By the end of August, a central Republican government had been established in Jakarta. It adopted a constitution drafted during the Japanese occupation by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence. Following Japanese navy advice that Christian Indonesians in its area would disapprove, provisions for a special role for Islam, such as the Jakarta Charter and a mandatory Muslim head of state, were not enacted. With general elections yet to be held, a Central Indonesian National Committee (KINP) was appointed to assist the president, however, elections were not held for 10 years. Similar committees were established at provincial and regency levels. Indonesian administrative advisors (sanyo), who had been appointed by the Japanese, andvice regents were appointed as Republican officials. This allowed for an efficient and discreet handover of power from the Japanese that minimised violation of the terms of the Japanese surrender. Questions of allegiance immediately arose amongs...

    The Netherlands, however, was critically weakened from World War II in Europe and did not return as a significant military force until early 1946. The Japanese and members of the Allied forces reluctantly agreed to act as caretakers. As US forces were focusing on the Japanese home islands, the archipelago was put under the jurisdiction of British Admiral Earl Louis Mountbatten, the Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia Command. Allied enclaves already existed in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), Morotai (Maluku) and parts of Irian Jaya; Dutch administrators had already returned to these areas. In the Japanese navy areas, the arrival of Allied troops quickly prevented revolutionary activities where Australian troops, followed by Dutch troops and administrators, took the Japanese surrender (except for Bali and Lombok). Due to the lack of strong resistance, two Australian Armydivisions succeeded in occupying eastern Indonesia. The British-led South East Asia Command was charged with...

    With British assistance, the Dutch landed their Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) forces in Jakarta and other key centres. Republican sources reported 8,000 deaths up to January 1946 in the defence of Jakarta, but they could not hold the city. The Republican leadership thus established themselves in the city of Yogyakarta with the crucial support of the new sultan, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX. Yogyakarta went on to play a leading role in the revolution, which would result in the city being granted its own Special Territory status. In Bogor, near Jakarta, and in Balikpapan in Kalimantan, Republican officials were imprisoned. In preparation for the Dutch occupation of Sumatra, its largest cities, Palembang and Medan, were bombed. In December 1946, Special Forces Depot (DST), led by commando and counter-insurgency expert Captain Raymond 'Turk' Westerling, were accused of pacifying the southern Sulawesi regionusing arbitrary terror techniques, which were copied by other an...

    Several phases are distinguished during the Bersiapperiod, each with different levels of violence and chaos. The Bersiap was mostly situated on the island of Java. British troops landed on Sumatra in October 1945. Former civilian internees on Sumatra were put into large camps in the sparsely populated interior. They were taken to the coast to the cities of Padang, Medan, and Palembang. By the end of November, all Japanese internment camps on Sumatra had been cleared. On Sumatra, the Japanese cooperated with the British and the Indonesian republicans were less militant than on Java, because the British never went inland and preferred to bypass areas with difficult terrain like Aceh and Batakland. The situation there, despite rioting in Medan and Padang, was relatively peaceful by the end of 1945. The chaotic Bersiapviolence did not occur on any other island in Indonesia. Bersiap started immediately after the proclamation of Indonesian independence and before the arrival of the first...

    Because the Indonesian military leadership was able to control and organise the militant revolutionary forces, the Indonesian political leadership retained overall authority and political leverage in the international arena. The civilian evacuation of Europeans and Indo-Europeans continued until the middle of the next year (May 1947.) Renewed hostility and warfare continued during the struggle for Indonesian independence and lasted until, under heavy political pressure from the United States and the United Nations, the Dutch formally transferred complete sovereignty over the Dutch East Indies to the United States of Indonesiain December 1949. The TNIwas established in June 1947 by merging all existing militia with the TRI, forming a united Republican army command in the areas on Java and Sumtra that formed the de facto Republic Indonesia. The establishment of the TNI, and the disbanding of the militias, increased security in Republican-controlled areas, allowing for law and order. M...

    One of the catalysts driving the atrocities committed by Indonesian Pemuda against the native Eurasian civilian population and Ambonese was the inciteful Republican propaganda. Republican propaganda during the revolution was used as a form of political warfare, by communicating loaded messages to produce emotional responses and influence the attitude of the masses, with the objective to further its political and military agenda. Effective means of mass communication were the broadcasts on republican radio stations such as 'Radio Pemberontak' and speeches during mass demonstrations. The supreme republican leader Sukarno had mastered these forms of communication. However, during the Bersiap period, the republican strategic agenda had not yet fully found a common ground and a unitary message on how to achieve its single mission of independence. Due to this paradox, republican communication often fluctuated between moderate (political) and radical (military) messages.[citation needed]Th...

    At first, republican propaganda such as radio speeches and mass rallies were the main tools to influence and mobilise the revolutionary masses. Indonesian military leadership was yet to establish a military agenda and had little control over the many autonomous revolutionary forces. During the Bersiap, Indonesian leaders such as generals Sudirman and Nasution began to hastily build a formal military structure and develop an Indonesian military strategy. In his book about the founding doctrines of Indonesia's Army General Nasution, who became Indonesia's foremost military intellectual, reflects on this strategy and highlights the long term negative psychological and social impact on Indonesian fighters involved in the Bersiap.

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