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  1. The Achaemenid Empire (/ ə ˈ k iː m ə n ɪ d /; Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐏂, romanized: Xšāça, lit. 'The Empire' or 'The Kingdom'), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire that was based in Western Asia and founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC.

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    The empire began as a tributary state of the Medes but ended up conquering and enlarging the Median empire to include Egypt and Asia Minor. Under Xerxes, it came very close to conquering Ancient Greece. The Achaemenids were overthrown by the conquest of Alexander the Greatin 330 BCE.

    Stronach, David "Darius at Pasargadae: a neglected source for the history of early Persia," Topoi
    Stronach, David "Anshan and Parsa: early Achaemenid history, art and architecture on the Iranian Plateau". In: John Curtis, ed., Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian period: conquest and imperialism...
    From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, Pierre Briant, Eisenbrauns: 2002, ISBN 978-1-57506-0316
    Musée achéménide virtuel et interactif (Mavi) Archived 2006-11-26 at the Wayback Machinea vast "Virtual Interactive Achemenide Museum" of more than 8000 items, dedicated to the inheritance of the P...
  2. According to Herodotus, the Achaemenids were a clan from the tribe of the Pasargadae and probably settled surrounding the site of Pasargadae. They possibly ruled over other Persian tribes in the 9th century BCE. Darius traced his genealogy to Achaemenes, an unknown lineage named after Haxāmaniš.

  3. The Achaemenid Empire is notit in Western history as the antagonist o the Greek ceety-states in the Greco-Persie Wars an for the emancipation o the Jewish exiles in Babylon. The historical merk o the empire went far ayont its territorial an militar influences an includit cultural, social, technological an releegious influences as weel.

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    Immortals or Persian Immortals was the name given by Herodotus to an elite heavy infantry unit of 10,000 soldiers in the army of the Achaemenid Empire. The unit served in a dual capacity through its role as imperial guard alongside its contribution to the ranks of the Persian Empire's standing army. While it primarily consisted of Persians, the Imm...

    Herodotus describes the Immortals as being heavy infantry led by Hydarnes the Younger; it provided the professional corps of the Persian armies and was kept constantly at a strength of exactly 10,000 men. He stated that the unit's name stemmed from the custom that every killed, seriously wounded, or sick member was immediately replaced with a new o...

    The Immortals played an important role in the Achaemenid conquest of Egypt under Cambyses II in 525 BCE, as well as in the Achaemenid conquest of northwestern ancient India and European Scythia under Darius I in c. 518 BCE and 513 BCE, respectively. They also notably participated in the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BCE during the Greco-Persian Wars...

    Xenophon describes the guard of Cyrus the Great as having bronze breastplates and helmets, while their horses wore chamfrons and peitrels of bronze together with shoulder pieces which also protected the rider's thighs. Herodotus instead describes their armament as follows: wicker shields covered in leather, short spears, quivers, swords or large da...

    The first re-occurrence of the word "Immortals" is in Roman historians' description of an elite cavalry unit in the army of the Sasanian Empire. Primary sources suggest that they numbered around 10,000 men in accordance with tradition, with the main formational difference being t

    The designation "Immortal" to describe a military unit was used twice during the era of the Byzantine Empire: first as elite heavy cavalry under John I Tzimiskes and then later under Nikephoritzes, the chief minister of Byzantine emperor Michael VII Doukas, as the core of a new c

    During the 19th-century Napoleonic Wars, many French soldiers referred to Napoleon's Imperial Guard as "the Immortals".

    Herodotus' account of two warrior elites—the hoplites of Sparta and the Immortals of Persia—facing each other in battle has inspired a set of rather colourful depictions of the battle, especially in regard of the Immortals: 1. In the 1962 film The 300 Spartans, the Immortals carry a spear and wicker shields like the actual Immortals. However, they ...

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  5. Arabia ( Old Persian cuneiform: 𐎠𐎼𐎲𐎠𐎹, Arabāya) was a satrapy (province) of the Achaemenid Empire. Achaemenid Arabia corresponded to the lands between Nile Delta (Egypt) and Mesopotamia, later known to Romans as Arabia Petraea. According to Herodotus, Cambyses did not subdue the Arabs when he attacked Egypt in 525 BCE.

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