The Al-Shams (Bengali: আল শামস) was an anti-Bangladesh paramilitary wing of several Islamist parties in East Pakistan composed of local Bengalis and Muhajirs that along with the Pakistan Army and the Al-Badr, is accused of conducting a mass killing campaign against Bengali nationalists, civilians, religious and ethnic minorities during 1971.
Al-Shams (Bengali: আল শামস) was a militia force formed in East Pakistan in early 1971 by the Pakistan Army.. Al-Shams is an Arabic word meaning 'The Sun'. Al Shams was Pakistani armed groups formed by the Pakistan Army to fight out and resist Mukti Bahini and support the army in its campaigns in the former East Pakistan provincial region.
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Al-Shams is the Arabic word for "the sun" ( الشمس) and may refer to: Ain Shams University, a university located in Cairo, Egypt. Majdal Shams, a Druze town in the Golan Heights (Migdal Shemesh in Hebrew) Al-Shams (newspaper), a Libyan newspaper in Arabic. Al-Shams (East Pakistan), a paramilitary wing of several parties in East Pakistan ...
India. East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1947 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh. Its land borders were with India and Burma, with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal. East Pakistanis were popularly known as "Pakistani Bengalis"; to distinguish this region from India's state West ...
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Al-Shams is an Arabic word meaning 'The Sun'. Al Shams and Al-Badr were Pakistani armed groups formed by the Pakistan Army to fight out and resist Mukti Bahiniand support the army in its campaigns in the former East Pakistan.
On 25 March 1971, after Operation Searchlight, the exiled leadership of what is now Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan and armed struggle against the Pakistani Army began. This struggle was spearheaded by elements of Mukti Bahini with strong support from India. As most of the locals were in support of Mukti Bahini, the Pakistani Army, composed largely of elements from Punjab, found itself and its cause pretty much alienated from the local populace. In order to counter this situation, the Pakistan Army accepted help from Islamic fundamentalist parties including Jama´at E Islami, proclaiming Jihad against Indians, to seek unity among the population for the two wings of Pakistan, in the name of religion. This Jihad was between the Pakistani Army and the liberation forces and their supporters (Indians and Mukti Bahini). To recruit the local populace into fighting the independence movement, two sister organizations Al Badr (literally meaning The Moon, but also has a reference...
The organizations failed to attract then East Pakistani population in the name of religion and Jihad and only a handful supporters joined the movement. The organization worked as the local guides for Pakistan Army supporting the troops providing logistics and information. However, as it failed to penetrate the general public which supported independence from Pakistan, its operational capabilities and efficiency remained low. According to witnesses before the International Crimes Tribunal, the Al Shams was under the command of Fazlul Quader Chowdhury and led on the ground by his son Salauddin Quader Chowdhury in Chittagong. The other important members were former M.P. Syed Wahidul Alam of Bangladesh Nationalist Party and Saifuddin Quader Chowdhury, the younger brother of Saluddin Quader Chowdhury. They used to patrol the neighbourhoods of Satkania, Rauzan, Boalkhali, Patia and Rangunia in a jeep. They would set fire to Hindu houses and arrest anybody they suspected of being supportiv...
The general surrender of 16 December 1971 culminates all armed resistance from Pakistani side and the two organizations ceased to exist.
The Al-Shams was an anti-Bangladesh paramilitary wing of several Islamist parties in East Pakistan composed of local Bengalis and Muhajirs that along with the Pakistan Army and the Al-Badr, is accused of conducting a mass killing campaign against Bengali nationalists, civilians, religious and ethnic minorities during 1971. The group was banned by the independent government of ...
Members of Al-Badr were recruited from public schools and madrasas (religious schools). The unit was used for raids and special operations; the Pakistan army command initially planned to use the locally recruited militias (Al-Badr, Razakar, Al-Shams) for policing cities of East Pakistan, and regular army units to defend the border with India.
- Leaders of Al-Badr
- Allegations of War Crimes
The name of the paramilitary formation, Al-Badr, may refer to the Battle of Badr. Together with the Razakar and Al-Shams, Al-Badr was formed in order to counter the guerrilla activities of the Mukti Bahiniwhich grew increasingly organised and militarily successful during in the second half of 1971. All three groups operated under Pakistani command,
Citing excerpts from Hussain Haqqani’s (Pakistani diplomat) book,'Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military', journalist and researcher Azadur Rahman Chandan said in his book, The Jamaat-e-Islami and especially its student wing,the Islami Jamiat-e-Talaba [IJT], joined the military’s effort in May 1971 to launch two paramilitary counterinsurgency units.'... 'The IJT provided a large number of recruits….The two special brigades of Islamists cadres were named Al-Shams and Al-Badr…. A separate Razakars Directorate was established… Two separate wings called Al-Badr and Al-Shams were recognised... 'Well educated and properly motivated students from schools and madrasas were put in Al-Badr wing, where they were trained to undertake specialised operations… the remainder were grouped together under Al-Shams.'Ashrafuz Zaman KhanChowdhury Mueen-UddinAli Ahsan Mohammad Mojaheed
After the surrender of the West Pakistani army on December 16, 1971, Al-Badr was dissolved together with the Razakar and Al-Shams. Many of the members of this elite unit were arrested. However during the time of President Ziaur Rahman, all of the collaborators including Al Badr were pardoned.
It is alleged that Al-Badr perpetrated atrocities against civilians during the war of 1971, in particular, the massacre of intellectuals in Dhaka that occurred on December 15, 1971.According to journalist Azadur Rahman Chandan The Al-Badr was experimentally launched in Jamalpur, Mymensingh on April 1971 as a voluntary force with Islami Chhatra Sangha activists as its first recruits to wage war against the freedom fighters. They were enlisted and trained under the guidance of Mohammad Kamaruzzaman, the assistant secretary general of Jamaat. Al-Badr is accused of carrying out a planned massacre and particularly the killing of the leading intelligentsia just two days ahead of the finalvictory on December 16, 1971. Citing excerpts from an investigative report published in the New York Times on January 3, 1972, Azadur Rahman Chandan said, 'Dressed in black sweaters and khaki pants, members of the group, known as Al-Badar, rounded up their victims on the last three nights of the war.'......
The Al-Shams (আল শামস) was an anti-Bangladesh paramilitary wing of several Islamist parties in East Pakistan composed of local Bengalis and Biharis that along with the Pakistan Army and the Al-Badr, is accused of conducting a mass killing campaign against Bengali nationalists, civilians, religious and ethnic minorities during 1971.