The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First F
The Austrian Empire was an empire that lasted in Europe from 1804 to 1867. The empire was centered on present-day Austria and was a remnant of the Holy Roman Empire which collapsed on 1806. The last Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, became Francis I of Austria. It was succeeded by Austria-Hungary.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, and was dissolved following its defeat in the First World War.
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Cisleithania was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania. The Cisleithanian capital was Vienna, the residence of the Austrian emperor. The territory had a population of 28,571,900 in 1910. It reached from Vorarlberg in the west to the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Duchy of Bukovina in the east, as well as from the Kingdom of Bohemia in the...
The Latin name Cisleithania derives from that of the Leitha River, a tributary of the Danube forming the historical boundary between the Archduchy of Austria and the Hungarian Kingdom in the area southeast of Vienna. Much of its territory lay west of the Leitha. After the constitutional changes of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Cisleithanian crown lands continued to constitute the Austrian Empire, but the latter term was rarely used to avoid confusion with the era before 1867, when
Cisleithania consisted of 15 crown lands which had representatives in the Imperial Council, the Cisleithanian parliament in Vienna. The crown lands centered on the Archduchy of Austria were not states, but provinces in the modern sense. However, they were areas with unique historic political and legal characteristics and were therefore more than mere administrative districts. They have been conceived of as "historical-political entities".
According to the "December Constitution", a redraft of the emperor's 1861 February Patent, the Austrian government was generally responsible in all affairs concerning the Cisleithanian lands, except for the common Austro-Hungarian Army, the Austro-Hungarian Navy and the Foreign Ministry, these k.u.k. matters remained reserved for the Imperial and Royal Ministers' Council for Common Affairs of Austria-Hungary. Initial meeting of the Abgeordnetenhaus in 1907 The Austrian Reichsrat, a bicameral leg
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The Austrian Empire (Austrian German: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Much of the revolutionary activity had a nationalist character: the Empire, ruled from Vienna, included ethnic Germans, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians (Ukrainians), Romanians, Croats, Venetians (Italians) and Serbs; all of whom attempted in the course of the revolution to either achieve autonomy, independence, or even hegemony over other nationalities.
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Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt (1797–1799) and Regensburg (1801–1803). On 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess (German: Reichsdeputationshauptschluss) was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial citiesfrom 51 to 6. This measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, but the actual consequence of the Imperial Recess was the end of the empire. Ta...
Although the office of Holy Roman Emperor was elective, the House of Habsburghad held the title since 1440 (with one brief interruption) and Austria was the core of their territories. Klemens von Metternich became Foreign Minister in 1809. He also held the post of Chancellor of State from 1821 until 1848, under both Francis I and his son Ferdinand I. The period of 1815-1848 is also referred to as the "Age of Metternich". During this period, Metternich controlled the Habsburg Monarchy's foreig...
Revolutions of 1848
From March 1848 through November 1849, the Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements, most of which were of a nationalist character. Besides that, liberal and even socialist currents resisted the empire's longstanding conservatism. Ultimately, the revolutions failed, in part because the various revolutionaries had conflicting goals.
The Napoleonic Wars dominated Austrian foreign policy from 1804 to 1815. The Austrian army was one of the most formidable forces the French had to face. After Prussia signed a peace treaty with France on 5 April 1795, Austria was forced to carry the main burden of war with Napoleonic France for almost ten years. This severely overburdened the Austrian economy, making the war greatly unpopular. Emperor Francis II therefore refused to join any further war against Napoleonfor a long time. On the other hand, Francis II continued to intrigue for the possibility of revenge against France, entering into a secret military agreement with the Russian Empire in November 1804. This convention was to assure mutual cooperation in the case of a new war against France. Austrian unwillingness to join the Third Coalition was overcome by British subsidies, but the Austrians withdrew from the war yet again after a decisive defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz. Although the Austrian budget suffered from w...
Crown lands of the Austrian Empire after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, including the local government reorganizations from the Revolutions of 1848 to the 1860 October Diploma: 1. Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich) 1.1. Lower Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich unter der Enns) 1.2. Upper Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich ob der Enns) 2. Duchy of Salzburg (Herzogtum Salzburg), 1815–1850 Salzach District (Salzachkreis) of Upper Austria 3. Duchy of Styria (Herzogtum Steiermark) 4. Princely County of Tyrol with Vorarlberg (Gefürstete Grafschaft Tirol mit dem Lande Vorarlberg), subdivided in 1861 5. Kingdom of Illyria (Königreich Illyrien), subdivided in 1849/1850: 5.1. Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten) 5.2. Duchy of Carniola (Herzogtum Krain) 5.3. Littoral (Küstenland) 5.3.1. Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca (Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca) 5.3.2. Imperial Free City of Trieste (Triest) 5.3.3. Margravate of Istria (Markgrafschaft Istrien) 6. Lands of the Bohemi...Evans, R. J. W. (2006). Austria, Hungary, and the Habsburgs: Essays on Central Europe, c. 1683–1867. onlineKann, Robert A. (1980). A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1526–1918(2nd ed.).Kissinger, Henry (1955). The World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh, and the Problems of Peace, 1812–22.Okey, Robin (2002). The Habsburg Monarchy, C.1765-1918: From Enlightenment to Eclipse. excerpt and text search
The Austrian Empire (Kaisertum Österreich) from 1804 to 1867 consisted of the Habsburg lands as a whole, leaving each land its special definition as kingdom (e.g., Bohemia, Hungary), archduchy (Lower and Upper Austria), duchy (e.g., Carniola) or princely county (e.g., Tyrol), however the Kingdom of Hungary —as Regnum Independens—was administered by its own institutions separately from the rest of the empire.
The Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified from 1804 to 1867 as the Austrian Empire and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It collapsed following defeat in the First World War. In historiography, the Habsburg Monarchy (of the Austrian branch) is often called "Austria" by metonymy.
Early in the 19th century, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation but pursued its own course independently of the other German states. Following the Austro-Prussian War and the compromise with Hungary, the Dual Monarchy was established.