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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › BostonBoston - Wikipedia

    Boston (US: / ˈ b ɔː s t ə n /), officially the City of Boston, is the state capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as well as the cultural and financial center of the New England region of the United States. It is the 24th-most populous city in the country.

    • Band

      Boston is an American rock band formed by Tom Scholz in...

    • Boston Police Department

      The Boston Police Department (BPD), dating back to 1838,...

    • Mission Hill

      Mission Hill is a 3 ⁄ 4 square mile (2 square km), primarily...

    • Outline of Boston

      The following outline is provided as an overview of and...

    • Culture in Boston

      The culture of Boston, Massachusetts, shares many roots with...

  2. Boston was founded on September 7, 1630, by Puritan colonists from England. Boston's early European settlers called the area Trimountaine (Three Mountains). They renamed the town for Boston, England, in Lincolnshire because many important "Pilgrim" colonists came from there. Most of Boston's early citizens were Puritans.

    • Indigenous Era
    • Foundation by Europeans
    • Colonial Era
    • Boston and The American Revolution, 1765–1775
    • 19th Century
    • 20th Century
    • 21st Century
    • Geographic Expansion
    • See Also
    • References

    Prior to European colonization the region around modern-day Boston was inhabited by the Indigenous Massachusett people. Their habitation consisted of small, seasonal communities along what is now the Charles River. The river was accurately named Quinobequin in the Algonquin language of the Massachusett, and they knew it as "the meandering one". The...

    Blaxton Era

    The first European to live in what would become Boston was William Blaxton. He was directly responsible for the foundation of Boston by Puritan colonizers in 1630. Blaxton had joined the failed Ferdinando Gorges expedition to America in 1623, which never landed. He eventually arrived later in 1623, as a chaplain to the subsequent expedition of Ferdinando's son, Robert Gorges, aboard the ship Katherine. This expedition landed in Weymouth, Massachusetts, five miles south of what is now Boston....

    Early colonists believed that Boston was a community with a special covenant with God, as captured in Winthrop's "City upon a Hill" metaphor. This influenced every facet of Boston life, and made it imperative that colonists legislate morality as well as enforce marriage, church attendance, education in the Word of God, and the persecution of sinner...

    Boston had taken an active role in the protests against the Stamp Act of 1765. Its merchants avoided the customs duties which angered London officials and led to a crackdown on smuggling. Governor Thomas Pownall (1757 to 1760) tried to be conciliatory, but his replacement Governor Francis Bernard 1760–69) was a hard-liner who wanted to stamp out th...

    Economic and population growth

    Boston was transformed from a relatively small and economically stagnant town in 1780 to a bustling seaport and cosmopolitan center with a large and highly mobile population by 1800. It had become one of the world's wealthiest international trading ports, exporting products like rum, fish, salt and tobacco.The upheaval of the American Revolution, and the British naval blockade that shut down its economy, had caused a majority of the population to flee the city. From a base of 10,000 in 1780,...

    Brahmin elite

    Boston's "Brahmin elite" developed a particular semi-aristocratic value system by the 1840s—cultivated, urbane, and dignified, the ideal Brahmin was the very essence of enlightened aristocracy. He was not only wealthy, but displayed suitable personal virtues and character traits. The term was coined in 1861 by Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. The Brahmin had high expectations to meet: to cultivate the arts, support charities such as hospitals and colleges, and assume the role of community leade...

    Abolitionists

    In 1831, William Lloyd Garrison founded The Liberator, an abolitionist newsletter, in Boston. It advocated "immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves" in the United States, and established Boston as the center of the abolitionist movement. After the passing of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, Boston became a bastion of abolitionist thought. Attempts by slave-catchers to arrest fugitive slaves often proved futile, which included the notable case of Anthony Burns and Kevin McLaughlin. Af...

    Early decades

    In 1900, Julia Harrington Duff (1850–1932) became the first woman from the Irish Catholic community to be elected to the Boston School Committee. Extending her role as teacher and mother she became an ethnic spokesperson as she confronted the power of the Yankee Protestant men of the Public School Association. She worked to replace 37-year-old textbooks, to protect the claims of local Boston women for career opportunities in the school system, and to propose a degree-granting teachers college...

    Mid-century transportation and urban renewal

    The I-695 Inner Belt shown on this map was never built. I-95 is shown here approaching the urban core from the southwest, but it was never built beyond the outer loop shown on this map (which was built as Route 128and which I-95 was later re-routed over). In 1934, the Sumner Tunnel created the first direct road connection under Boston Harbor, between the North End and East Boston. In May 1938, the first public housing project, Old Harbor Village was opened in South Boston. By 1950, Boston was...

    World War II and later

    On November 28, 1942, Boston's Cocoanut Grove nightclub was the site of the Cocoanut Grove fire, the deadliest nightclub fire in United States history, killing 492 people and injuring hundreds more. During the war years, antisemitic violence escalated in Boston. Gangs largely composed of Irish Catholic youths desecrated Jewish cemeteries and synagogues, vandalized Jewish stores and homes, and physically assaulted Jews in the streets. The Boston police force, which was made up largely of Irish...

    Recently, Boston has experienced a loss of regional institutions and traditions, which once gave it a very distinct social character, as it has become part of the northeastern megalopolis. Examples include: the acquisition of the Boston Globe by The New York Times; the loss of Boston-headquartered publishing houses (noted above); the acquisition of...

    The City of Boston has expanded in two ways—through landfill and through annexation of neighboring municipalities. Between 1630 and 1890, the city tripled its physical size by land reclamation, specifically by filling in marshes and mud flats and by filling gaps between wharves along the waterfront, a process Walter Muir Whitehill called "cutting d...

    Bacon, Edwin Monroe (1916). The Book of Boston: Fifty Years' Recollections of the New England Metropolis. Boston: The Pilgrim Press. ISBN 9780788428951.
    Bacon, Edwin Monroe (1886). Boston Illustrated.
    Cole, William I. (April 1898). "Boston's Pauper Institutions". The New England Magazine. 24(2).
  3. sco.wikipedia.org › wiki › BostonBoston - Wikipedia

    Boston (pronooncit /ˈbɒstən/ ( listen)) is the caipital o an lairgest ceety in Massachusetts, an is ane o the auldest ceeties in the Unitit States. The lairgest ceety in New Ingland, Boston is regardit as the unoffeecial "Caipital o New Ingland" for its economic an cultural impact on the entire New Ingland region. [9]

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