Jun 02, 2013 · Hypnosis, in and out of fashion, is enjoying a resurgence in the lab as a tool in neuroscience and neuropsychology. It’s a way to create “virtual patients” and simulate conditions ranging from functional amnesia to paranoia to hysterical blindness, from auditory hallucinations to a conviction that “my arm belongs to someone else” .
- 10 Freud’s Theory of Weaving
- 9 Freud’s Theory of God
- 8 Freud’s Theory of Paranoia
- 7 Freud’s Seduction Theory
- 6 Freud’s ‘Double Moses’ Theory
- 5 Freud’s Theory of Inherent Bisexuality
- 4 Freud’s Theory of The Death Drive
- 3 Freud and Hypnosis
- 2 Freud and The Cathartic Method
- 1 Freud’s ‘Relief Theory’
Freud’s opinions about women are famously patronizing and misogynistic, although he did advocate for them becoming members of his profession. He thought of women as being more emotionally needy, more demanding of attention, more prone to neuroses and hysteria, less swayed by conscience, more passive, and more narcissistic than men. Some of the theories that he invented to explain these personal observations seem completely ludicrous to us today. Freud’s theory on how weaving came about is a perfect example. Why were women so demanding of attention? Why did they invest so much time and effort in their appearance? According to Freud, it was a compensation for their natural sexual inferiority. Women were born with a “genital deficiency” (they didn’t have a penis), so out of fear of being disregarded altogether, they had to ensure that they looked nice and turned men’s heads. This natural inferiority, combined with their lack of aggression, led to them contributing little to the advance...
Freud’s ideas about God were both interesting and influential. The famously Jewish “father of psychoanalysis” claimed that the Judeo-Christian concept of God originated in a much older, far more primitive, father figure. This grisly, authoritarian uber-Daddy stems from Freud’s concept of the “primal horde.” The primal hordewas essentially an ancient Stone Age clan. They lived under an alpha male leader who kept all the women for himself. Too afraid to challenge his tyranny, the horde remained in conflict with their own repressed sexual and aggressive urges, living in a state of childlike obedience and dependence. Sometimes, however, the horde’s urge to break free would reach a critical point. It grew into a collective wish to shatter the spell of the leader’s assumed omnipotence. The father’s sons might break away and achieve independence through homosexuality. They might then confirm their newfound independence by returning to kill the father and cannibalize him. Afterward, they wo...
Unreasonable paranoia is a commonly observed symptom among the mentally ill. Freud, of course, had an unusual theory about it. For some reason, he saw paranoia as a projection of unconscious homosexual desire. (Might he have been projecting a little?) Freud also thought that paranoia might be a defense mechanism for protecting self-esteem, and this is the only aspect of his theory of paranoia that is still taken seriously today. Later psychoanalysts generally discarded Freud’s original theory of paranoia and came to agree that the deeply hidden psychological cause was not a projection of repressed homosexuality, but rather a projection of repressed childhood aggression. This theory seems to make a bit more sense, since most paranoid people are paranoid about someone or something intending to harm them in some way. From a purely scientific perspective, however, the cause of paranoia is still unclear.
Early in his career, Freud noticed that many of his female patients who were suffering from “hysterical neuroses” had repressed memories of early sexual abuse and trauma. In most of these cases, the perpetrator was said to be the woman’s own father. Doctors were aware of this relatively common complaint among female psychiatric patients, but in those days, they universally dismissed them as perverse fantasies on the part of the patient. Freud, however, began to take the abuse claims seriously and listened to what they had to say. He wrote in his paper, “The Etiology of Hysteria”: The fact is that these patients never repeat these stories spontaneously, nor do they ever in the course of a treatment suddenly present the physician with the complete recollection of a scene of this kind. One only succeeds in awakening the psychical trace of a precocious sexual event under the most energetic pressure of the analytic procedure, and against an enormous resistance. Moreover, the memory must...
At the end of his life, Freud’s staunch atheism mellowed. Upon reflection, Freud no longer entirely saw religion as something peddled to weak-minded individuals, but rather as something which had allowed humanity to think in new ways and achieve new outcomes. Freud also began to see that religion was valuable in terms of how it encouraged people to become more introspective and explore the inner world of the mind. He even went so far as to refer to belief in an abstract deity in preference of visible idols as “a triumph of intellectuality over sensuality.” Freud’s last book, Moses and Monotheism, could be described in turn as a triumph of imaginative speculation. Freud speculated that there were two separate individuals behind the story of Moses, and they later got conflated into the single Old Testament character. The first individual was an Egyptian named Moses. The second was an unnamed Midianite priest. Freud’s study of fairy tales had led him to believe that the Biblical accoun...
Everyone has both active and passive aspects to their personality and behavior. Freud thought of “active” aspects as being inherently masculine and of “passive” aspects as being inherently feminine. Therefore, it followed in Freud’s mind that, psychologically speaking, everyone must be a mix of masculine and feminine components. Most people today would agree with this, but we can now appreciate that defining gender is not as simple as labeling active traits masculine and passive traits feminine. Nonetheless, Freud concluded that everyone must be inherently bisexual. This idea was strengthened, if not arrived at, through the powerful influenceof his peculiar friend, Wilhelm Fliess. Fliess was an ear, nose, and throat specialist whose wide-ranging interests included psychoanalysis. He became Freud’s closest friend throughout Freud’s most productive period, and Freud would bounce ideas off Fliess and vice versa. Like Freud, Fliess was highly ambitious and able to dream up some pretty w...
Someone with a “death wish” is said to be prone to habits and situations that could endanger their life. The “death wish” idea is popularly accepted today as a legitimate psychological complex, but Freud intended something slightly different with his theory of a “death drive.” What Freud originally meant has become fraught with misunderstanding. This is primarily because of mistranslations from German to English and because Freud himself was confused in his development of the idea over many years. He was also grasping at straws to support it and was keen to distance himself from the fact that the pessimistic German philosopher Schopenhauer had come up with a remarkably similar theoryseveral decades before him. Freud, having already established his theory of the “pleasure principle” (the positive drive or instinct toward life, health, well-being, creativity, and procreation), became uncertain while treating traumatized victims of World War I. If his pleasure principle theory was corr...
Freud studied hypnosis early in his career and showed great interest in the underlying psychological mechanisms that made the technique so effective on more suggestible patients. He mainly explained his theories on the subject in his work Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. He began the book by discussing the apparently unrelated subject of love. Freud believed that there were various degrees of falling in love, but he observed that in extreme cases, where someone completely idealizes another person, the individual’s ego gets “exchanged”for the will of his or her lover. In other words, “Whatever my lover wants, I will do for him or her, no matter the personal cost to me!” That’s where the connection with hypnosis comes in. When lovers have entered into an exclusive group of two, with each individual taking the place of the other’s ego, the love is reciprocated. Hypnosis resembles this, according to Freud, except that the hypnotist retains his or her will completely and imp...
Catharsis is when people vent their feelings and supposedly feel better afterward. Freud used a “cathartic method” passed on to him by his early friend and colleague Josef Breuer. Breuer also referred many of Freud’s first patients to him when Freud began his private practice in Vienna. The two collaborated in writing Studies in Hysteria, in which Breuer explained his observation that the symptoms of neuroses could be relieved by inducing patients to recall negative past experiences under hypnosis. This finding led both Breuer and Freud to believe that neurotic symptoms had their roots in the unconscious. They only needed to be brought into consciousness in order for their power to be extinguished. Along with hypnosis, the cathartic method was the primary way of achieving this. In those days, Freud used and developed the cathartic method along with hypnosis before arriving at his more effective theory of the psychoanalytic technique. Freud recognized a number of problems with the ca...
It’s often said that laughter is the best medicine. While Freud didn’t invent the “relief theory” of laughter, he added to it in 1905 when he published Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious. In it, Freud attempted to explain the unconscious reasons why certain things make us laugh. A form of cathartic relief is the answer. He claimed that laughter is caused by storing repressed energy and then releasing it suddenly, causing a form of pleasurable relief. Jokes enable us to capture the energy of our repressed sexual desires or inappropriate aggressions and release it in a harmless way. Freud suggested three main contextsin which this happens—the comic, humor, and jokes. The comic sets up an intellectual problem for us to solve. Repressed energy is diverted into solving the problem. The problem gets solved for us by the comic, usually not in the way we expect, and the trapped energy is released through laughter. With humor, the problem isn’t intellectual, but rather emotional. A...
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Misconceptions about hypnosis and hypnotism in our culture can be traced back to du Maurier’s book, Svengali’s Web, published in 1894, and to the movie, Svengali, released in 1933, and a later movie produced in 1955. For more info. on these movies or to get the Svengali movie (1933) or for Svengali Movie (1955) click on the link.
Misconceptions about hypnosis and hypnotism in our culture can be traced back to du Maurier's book, Svengali's Web, published in 1894, and to the movie, Svengali, released in 1933, and a later movie produced in 1955.
Jan 31, 1995 · (For the record, Tuesday, February 1, 1995:) Gillian Anderson portrays Agent Dana Scully in the Fox TV series "The X-Files." Her last name was wrong in a story in Tuesday's IN Life section.
can do more under hypnosis then in full consciousness ... dreams are produced when the mind attempts to make sense of random neural activity that occurs in the brain ...
Psychologists and psychiatrists have long realized that a person's memory can be remarkably increased while under hypnosis. Often long-forgotten and trivial iinformation can be clearly remembered, such memories being inaccessible to the subject during normal waking consciousness.  Even experiences of early childhood can be vividly relived. 
hormone produced in the brain's pineal gland, is secreted at about 9:30 pm in younger adolescents and approximately an hour later in older adolescents hypnosis a normal state in which the hypnotized person behaves the way he or she believes that a hypnotized person should behave
Concurrently, âbrain-washingâ was carried out on inmates at Dachau, who were placed under hypnosis and given the hallucinogenic drug mescaline. During the war, parallel behavioral research was led by Dr. George Estabrooks of Colgate University. His involvement with the Army, CID, FBI and other agencies remains shrouded in secrecy.