Constantinople appears as a city of wondrous majesty, beauty, remoteness, and nostalgia in William Butler Yeats' 1928 poem "Sailing to Byzantium." Constantinople, as seen under the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II, makes several on-screen appearances in the 2001 TV miniseries Attila as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
State of the Byzantine Empire. Constantinople had been an imperial capital since its consecration in 330 under Roman emperor Constantine the Great.In the following eleven centuries, the city had been besieged many times but was captured only once before: the Sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
- 6 April – 29 May 1453 (53 days)
- Decisive Ottoman victory, fall of the Byzantine Empire
- Constantinople (present-day Istanbul)41°01′00″N 28°58′37″E / 41.0167°N 28.9769°ECoordinates: 41°01′00″N 28°58′37″E / 41.0167°N 28.9769°E
- Ottoman Empire annexes the remaining Byzantine territories; Constantinople becomes its new capital, The Morea and Trebizond continue as Byzantine rump states, until their conquest in 1460 and 1461 respectively
Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις, Konstantinoúpolis, or Πόλις, Polis) was the capital of the Roman Empire (330-395), the Byzantine/East ...
Fortifications (Walls of Constantinople) According to tradition, the city was founded as Byzantium by Greek colonists from Megara , led by the eponymous Byzas , around 658 BC.  At the time the city consisted of a small region around an acropolis , located on the easternmost hill (corresponding to the modern site of the Topkapı Palace ).
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- Before the siege
- Capture of the city
- Sack of Constantinople
The Sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade. Crusader armies captured, looted, and destroyed parts of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. After the capture of the city, the Latin Empire was established and Baldwin of Flanders was crowned Emperor Baldwin I of Constantinople in the Hagia Sophia. After the city's sacking, most of the Byzantine Empire's territories were divided up among the Crusaders. Byzantine aristocrats also
The Massacre of the Latins, a massacre of the Roman Catholic or "Latin" inhabitants of Constantinople by the usurper Andronikos Komnenos and his supporters in May 1182, had a dramatic effect on the politics between Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire. Although regular trade agreements were soon resumed between Roman Byzantine and Latin states, many westerners sought some form of revenge. Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era Following the siege of Constantinople i
By the end of March, the combined Crusader armies were besieging Constantinople as Emperor Alexios V began to strengthen the city's defences while conducting more active operations outside the city. By the first week of April, the Crusaders had begun their siege from their encampment in the town of Galata across the Golden Horn from Constantinople. On 9 April 1204, the Crusader and Venetian forces began an assault on the Golden Horn fortifications by crossing the waterway to the northwest wall o
On 12 April 1204 weather conditions finally favoured the Crusaders as the weather cleared and a second assault on the city was ordered. A strong north wind aided the Venetian ships near the Golden Horn to come close to the city wall, which enabled attackers to seize some of the towers along the wall. After a short battle approximately 70 Crusaders managed to enter the city. Some Crusaders were eventually able to knock holes in the walls large enough for a few knights at a time to crawl through;
The Crusaders looted, terrorized, and vandalized Constantinople for three days, during which many ancient and medieval Roman and Greek works were either stolen or destroyed. The famous bronze horses from the Hippodrome were sent back to adorn the façade of St Mark's Basilica in Venice, where they remain. As well as being stolen, works of immeasurable artistic value were destroyed merely for their material value. One of the most precious works to suffer such a fate was a large bronze statue ...
According to a prearranged treaty the empire was apportioned between Venice and the crusade's leaders, and the Latin Empire of Constantinople was established. Boniface was not elected as the new emperor, although the citizens seemed to consider him as such; the Venetians thought he had too many connections with the former empire because of his brother, Renier of Montferrat, who had been married to Maria Comnena, daughter and for a time heir-apparent of Manuel I. Instead they placed Baldwin of Fl
Although the Hippodrome is usually associated with Constantinople's days of glory as an imperial capital, it actually predates that era. The first Hippodrome was built when the city was called Byzantium , and was a provincial town of moderate importance.
The Great Palace of Constantinople, also known as the Sacred Palace, was the large Imperial Byzantine palace complex located in the south-eastern end of the peninsula now known as Old Istanbul, in modern Turkey. It served as the main royal residence of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine emperors until 1081 and was the centre of imperial administration for over 690 years. Only a few remnants and fragments of its foundations have survived into the present day.
When Constantine I refounded Byzantium as Constantinople in 330, he planned out a palace for himself. The palace was located between the Hippodrome and Hagia Sophia. The complex of palaces was rebuilt and expanded several times during its history. Much of the complex was destroyed during the Nika riots of 532 and was rebuilt lavishly by the emperor Justinian I. Further extensions and alterations were commissioned by Justinian II and Basil I. However, it had fallen into disrepair by the time of C
The Palace was located in the southeastern corner of the peninsula where Constantinople is situated, behind the Hippodrome and the Hagia Sophia. The Palace is considered by scholars to have been a series of pavilions, much like the Ottoman-era Topkapı Palace that succeeded it. The total surface area of the Great Palace exceeded 200,000 square feet. It stood on a steeply sloping hillside that descends nearly 33 metres from the Hippodrome to the shoreline, which necessitated the construction ...
Helena of Constantinople by Cima da Conegliano, 1495 (National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.) Saint Helena with the Cross , Lucas Cranach the Elder , 1525 ( Cincinnati Art Museum ) Jerusalem was still being rebuilt following the destruction caused by Titus in 70 AD.
The First Council of Constantinople (381) was the first appearance of the term 'New Rome' in connection to Constantinople. The term was employed as the grounds for giving the relatively young church of Constantinople precedence over Alexandria and Antioch ('because it is the New Rome').
Istanbul (Not Constantinople)" is a 1953 novelty song, with lyrics by Jimmy Kennedy and music by Nat Simon. It was written on the 500th anniversary of the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans. The lyrics humorously refer to the official renaming of the city of Constantinople to Istanbul.