Cumbria (/ ˈkʌmbriə / KUM-bree-ə) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The history of Cumbria as a county of England begins with the Local Government Act 1972. Its territory and constituent parts however have a long history under various other administrative and historic units of governance.
Cumbria is a county in England. It is in the very north-western part of England on the border with Scotland. The most important and biggest town is Carlisle, in the north of the county. This is the county town and there is an ancient (very old) castle in the centre of the town.
Cumbria (/ ˈkʌmbriə / KUM-bree-ə) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972.
The Cumbria shootings were a shooting spree which occurred on 2 June 2010 when a lone gunman, taxi driver Derrick Bird, killed twelve people and injured eleven others before committing suicide in Cumbria, England, United Kingdom. Along with the 1987 Hungerford massacre and the 1996 Dunblane school massacre, it is one of the worst criminal acts involving firearms in British history. The shootings ended when Bird was found dead in a wooded area after abandoning his car in the village of Boot. The
In the early hours of 2 June, Derrick Bird left his home in Rowrah, Cumbria, drove his Citroën Xsara Picasso to his twin brother David's home in Lamplugh, and shot him eleven times in the head and body with a.22 calibre rifle, killing him. Bird then drove to Frizington, arriving
In the wake of the Whitehaven shootings, residents there and in the neighbouring towns of Egremont and Seascale were urged to stay indoors. A massive manhunt for Bird was launched by the Cumbria Constabulary, which was assisted by Civil Nuclear Constabulary officers. Bird proceed
Shortly after firing at two cyclists, Bird crashed his taxi into several vehicles and a stone wall, damaging a tyre. Briefly continuing onward, he abandoned his car at a beauty spot near Boot, named Doctor Bridge, when the damaged tyre deflated. A nearby family of four, who were
There has been speculation that Bird may have had a grudge against people associated with the Sellafield nuclear power plant that he worked for as a joiner, resigning in 1990 due to an allegation of theft of wood from the plant. Bird was subsequently convicted and given a twelve-
Prime Minister David Cameron was joined by several other MPs in expressing the House of Commons members' shock and horror at the events during Prime Minister's Questions. Home Secretary Theresa May expressed her regret at the deaths and paid tribute to the response of the emergen
BBC One altered their programming to broadcast two BBC News specials about the shootings, at 14:15 and 19:30 on the same day. ITV soap Coronation Street was cancelled on 2, 3, and 4 June as it contained a violent storyline featuring a gun siege in a factory. The episodes were air
On 9 June 2010, a week after the incident, memorial services were held in the West Cumbria towns affected by the shootings followed by a minute's silence at midday. Soon after the minute's silence taxi drivers on Duke Street sounded their horns for one minute to show their respect. The minute's silence for the Cumbria victims was also marked prior to David Cameron's second Prime Minister's Questions in Parliament. The funerals of the majority of Bird's victims were held at various churches in We
Cumbria (Inglis pronunciation: /ˈkʌmbriə/), is a shire coonty in the North Wast o Ingland. Cumbria cam intae existence as a coonty in 1974 efter the passage o the Local Government Act 1972. The coonty conseests o sax destricts, an haes a tot population o 498,800. Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Cumbria.
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The etymology of the name has been debated. Several toponymists argue for a derivation from the Cumbric or Welsh pen 'head, chief, end' (both noun and adjective) + Cumbric rid, Welsh rhyd'ford'. On this basis, the name would mean "chief ford", "hill ford", "ford end" or Whaley's suggestion: "the head of the ford" or "headland by the ford". Penrith, however, lies about 1 mile (1.6 km) from the nearest crossing of the River Eamont at Eamont Bridge. An alternative has been suggested consisting of the same pen element meaning "head, end, top" + the equivalent of Welsh rhudd "crimson". Research on the medieval spelling variants of Penrith also suggests this alternative etymology. The name "red hill" may refer to Beacon Hill, to the north-east of today's town. There is also a place called Redhills to the south-west, near the M6 motorway, and a place called Penruddock, about 6 miles (9.7 km) west of Penrith. These names all reflect the local geology, as red sandstone is abundantly availabl...
The Roman fort of Voreda occupied the site now known as Old Penrith, five miles north of the town. The Roman road from Manchester to Carlisle ran through the area. Excavations before an extension to Penrith Cemetery showed the road had survived better at the edges of the field. The cobble and gravel surfaces seemed to have been ploughed out at the centre. The road was constructed by excavating a wide, shallow trench below subsoil level. Large cobbles were probably obtained nearby, as they did...
Penrith was an urban district between 1894 and 1974, when it was merged into Eden District. Its area was coterminous with the civil parish of Penrith, although when the council was abolished Penrith became an unparished area. The area had been an urban sanitary district presided over by a Local Board of Health. The district also contained the hamlets of Carleton (now a suburb of Penrith), Bowscar, Plumpton Head and part of the village of Eamont Bridge. It was divided into four wards, North, S...
Penrith is in the parliamentary constituency of Penrith and the Border. Neil Hudson was elected its Conservative Member of Parliament at the 2019 General Election, he gained a majority of 37.8 per cent, replacing Rory Stewart.
Penrith has three levels of local government – county, district and parish (town). For county purposes it is governed by Cumbria County Council, whose social services and education departments used to have area offices in the town. Penrith is the seat of administration for Eden District Council, one of the largest districts by area in England and the most sparsely populated. It is based at offices in Penrith Town Hall and the building now known as Mansion House, formerly Bishop Yards House. A...
Local government divisions
For the purposes of electing councillors to Eden District Council and to Penrith Town Council, the civil parish of Penrith is divided into six wards: 1. Penrith West: Castletown and parts of the town centre and Townhead 2. Penrith North: part of the town centre, the New Streets, most of Townhead and the outlying settlements of Roundthorn, Bowscar and Plumpton Head 3. Penrith South: Wetheriggs, Castle Hill, a small part of the town centre, part of Eamont Bridge and part of the Bridge Lane/Vict...
Penrith is located in the Eden Valley, just north of the River Eamont. Other local rivers bounding the town are the River Lowther and the River Petteril. Thacka Beck flows through the centre of the town in a partially man-made watercourse, remaining mostly underground. It connects the River Petteril and the River Eamont. For many centuries, the Beck provided Penrith's main water supply. Thacka Beck Nature Reserve provides flood storage which protects homes and businesses in Penrith. Another s...
As with most of the British Isles, Penrith experiences a maritime climate with warm summers and cool winters. The nearest Met Office weather station is at Newton Rigg, about a mile outside of the town centre. Temperature extremes range from 33.3 °C (91.9 °F) during July 1901, down to −17.8 °C (0.0 °F) in February 1969, although this was nearly exceeded by a temperature of −17.7 °C (0.1 °F) in December 2010.Newton Rigg also holds the record for the coldest April temperature reported in England, −15.0 °C (5.0 °F) during April 1917.
The main church is St Andrew's built in 1720–1722 in an imposing Grecianstyle, abutting a 13th-century tower. The churchyard has ancient crosses and hogback tombstones known as the "Giant's Grave" (early 10th century) and "Giant's Thumb" – remains of a Norse cross from about 920. The ruins of Penrith Castle (14th–16th centuries) can be seen from the adjacent railway station. It is run as a visitor attraction by English Heritage. To the south-east of the town are the more substantial ruins of Brougham Castle, also protected by English Heritage, as are the ancient henge sites known as Mayburgh Henge and King Arthur's Round Tableto the south. In the centre of the town is the Clock Tower erected in 1861 to commemorate Philip Musgrave of Edenhall. Hutton Hall in Friargate has a 14th-century pele tower at the rear, attached to an 18th-century building. Dockray Hall (once the Gloucester Arms) is dated to about 1470 and may include remains of another pele tower. Richard, Duke of Gloucester...
Just off Junction 40 of the M6 motorway, the A66, A6 and A686intersect in the town. Penrith is a stop on the West Coast Main Line, with the station (dating from 1846) officially known as Penrith North Lakes. Since an upgrade to the West Coast Main Line was completed in 2008, fewer trains have stopped at Penrith, leaving only an irregular service to London, Birmingham, Manchester, Glasgow and Edinburgh. National Expressoperate two long-distance coach routes with stops in Penrith. The National Cycle Network's major National Route 7 runs through the town, and National Route 71 stops just short of its southern edge. Penrith has a number of taxi firms licensed by Eden District Council. The main taxi rank is in Sandgate in the middle of town, near the bus station, and there is another outside the railway station. Local buses are run mostly by Stagecoach in Cumbria, with frequent links to Carlisle, Keswick and West Cumbria, Ullswater and less frequent ones to Windermere, Appleby-in-Westmor...
Penrith Hospital and Health Centre is situated along Bridge Lane at the southern entrance to the town close to the Kemplay Bank roundabout, where the A6, A66 and A686 meet. These are administered by the Cumbria Partnership NHS Trust. The hospital was opened in 1970 to replace the Jubilee Cottage Hospital on Beacon Edge, Fairhill Fever Hospital, and the maternity home at the former workhouse in Castletown. The hospital comprises wards for the elderly and mental health care, a minor injuries an...
Police and fire service
Penrith falls comes under Cumbria Constabulary, whose headquarters are at Carleton Hall on the outskirts of the town. The town's own police station used to be located in Hunter Lane, but it has since been replaced by a smaller facility close to Carleton Hall. Carleton Hall is also the location of Penrith's fire station and the headquarters of Cumbria Fire and Rescue Service.
The North West Ambulance Service has a base in Tynefield Drive, close to the hospital. The Great North Air Ambulance Service has its Cumbrian base close to Penrith at Langwathby and was at one time-based at Carleton Hall. The Penrith Mountain Rescueteam whose operating area covers the Eden Valley, North Pennines and the area towards the Scottish border also has a base in Tynefield Drive.
In order of birth: 1. Richard III (1452–1485) lived at Penrith Castle for a time. The links to him in the town include two fragments of medieval glass. One in St Andrew's Church is taken to show the heads of Richard Plantagenet and Cecily Neville – Richard III's parents. The other, on display in the town, shows the Musgrave coat of arms. Richard III is thought to have stayed at the Gloucester Arms, then a large private house. The bar has panelling of various periods, behind which is an early screen carved with a design taken to be broom (Planta genista), an emblem of the Plantagenetkings. 2. The Scottish road-builder and engineer John Loudon Macadam(1756–1836), inventor of macadamized roads, lived for a while at Cockell House in Townhead. Close by are streets named Macadam Way and Macadam Gardens. 3. George Leo Haydock (1774–1849), noted for an annotated edition of the Catholic Douay Bible, served as Catholic priest here from 1839 until his death in 1849. 4. Penrith was the home tow...
Like other rural towns of its size, Penrith relies on public houses to form the basis of social entertainment, and was once famous for the sheer number of pubs in the town, served by five working breweries. The trend of pub closures is still continuing, but a considerable number remain. They range from small traditional pubs with a loyal clientele to bigger bars that form part of the "circuit". Penrith also has numerous dining places and restaurants. The Lonsdale (formerly the Alhambra) in Middlegate is a cinemawith three screens built in 1910 by William Forrester. There was until the 1980s another cinema called the Regent on Old London Road. Amateur dramatics and musicals are staged at the Penrith Players Theatre, Ullswater Community Collegeand Queen Elizabeth Grammar School.
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The town is first recorded in Edward I's charter of the 13th century, as "Kesewik". Scholars have generally considered the name to be from the Old English, meaning "farm where cheese is made", the word deriving from "cēse" (cheese) with a Scandinavian initial "k" and "wīc" (special place or dwelling), although not all academics agree. George Flom of the University of Illinois (1919) rejected that derivation on the grounds that a town in the heart of Viking-settled areas, as Keswick was, would not have been given a Saxon name; he proposed instead that the word is of Danish or Norse origin, and means "Kell's place at the bend of the river". Among the later scholars supporting the "cheese farm" toponymy are Eilert Ekwall (1960) and A. D. Mills (2011) (both Oxford University Press), and Diana Whaley (2006), for the English Place-Name Society.[n 1]
Evidence of prehistoric occupation in the area includes the Castlerigg stone circle on the eastern fringe of the town, which has been dated to c. 3200 BC. Neolithic-era stone tools were unearthed inside the circle and in the centre of Keswick during the 19th century. The antiquary W. G. Collingwood, commenting in 1925 about finds in the area, wrote that they showed "Stone Age man was fairly at home in the Lake District". There is little evidence of sustained settlement in the area during the Bronze Age, but from excavations of hill forts it is clear that there was some Iron Ageoccupation, circa 500 BC, although scholars are not agreed about how permanent it was. In Roman Britain Cumbria was the territory of the Carvetii. As the site of the western part of Hadrian's Wall, it was of strategic importance. The north of the county is rich in archaeological evidence from the period, but nothing is known that suggests any Roman habitation in the Keswick area, other than finds that point to...
Keswick's recorded history starts in the Middle Ages. The area was conquered by the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century, but Northumbria was destroyed by the Vikings in the late 9th. In the early 10th century the British Kingdom of Strathclyde seized the area, and it remained part of Strathclyde until about 1050, when Siward, Earl of Northumbria, conquered Cumbria. In 1092 William II of England, son of William the Conqueror, marched north and established the great baronies o...
16th and 17th centuries: agriculture and industry
With the Dissolution of the Monasteries, between 1536 and 1541, Furness and Fountains Abbeys were supplanted by new secular landlords for the farmers of Keswick and its neighbourhood. The buying and selling of sheep and wool were no longer centred on the great Abbeys, being handled locally by the new landowners and tenants. This enhanced Keswick's importance as a market centre, though at first the town remained only modestly prosperous: in the 1530s John Leland wrote of it as "a lytle poore m...
18th and 19th centuries: beginnings of tourism
The historian George Bott regards John Dalton (1709–63) and John Brown (1715–66) as the pioneers of tourism in the Lake District. Both wrote works praising the majesty of the scenery, and their enthusiasm prompted others to visit the area. The poet Thomas Gray published an account of a five-day stay in Keswick in 1769, in which he described the view of the town as "the vale of Elysium in all its verdure", and was lyrical about the beauties of the fells and the lake. His journal was widely rea...
Keswick became a Local Government District in 1853 and an urban district with three wards in 1894, reflecting its growth in the latter part of the 19th century. The new urban district's northern boundary was extended from the Greta to the railway, taking in Great Crosthwaite and part of Underskiddaw in 1899. In 1974 the urban district was abolished and since then the town has been administered by Keswick Town Council and Allerdale Borough Council. Since 2010 Keswick has been in the Copeland parliamentary constituency, having previously been part of Workington and before that Penrith and The Border. The electoral wardof Keswick stretches beyond the confines of the parish boundary and at the 2011 Census had a total population of 5,243.
Keswick lies in north-western England, in the heart of the northern Lake District. The town is 31.4 miles (50.5 km) south-west of Carlisle, 22.1 miles (35.6 km) northwest of Windermere and 14.2 miles (22.9 km) south-east of Cockermouth. Derwentwater, the lake to the south-west of the town, is approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) long by 1 mile (1.6 km) wide and is some 72 feet (22 m) deep. It contains several islands, including Derwent Isle, Lord's Island, Rampsholme Island and St Herbert's Island, the largest. Derwent Isle is the only island on the lake that is inhabited; it is run by the National Trust and open to visitors five days a year. The land between Keswick and the lake consists mainly of fields and areas of woodland, including Isthmus Wood, Cockshot Wood, Castlehead Wood and Horseclose and Great Wood, further to the south. The River Derwent flows from Derwentwater to Bassenthwaite, the most northerly of the major Cumbrian lakes. The Derwent and its tributary the Greta, which fl...
The registers of Crosthwaite Church stated that there were 238 interments in 1623, believed to have been something between a twelfth and a tenth of the whole population of the parish at that time.In the 1640s there was a sharp fall in population, brought on by the plague epidemic which affected Keswick, Carlisle, Cockermouth and Crosthwaite and other areas in 1645–47. In the 1801 census, the township of Keswick, including the town and surrounding hamlets, had a reported population of 1,350 people. The population grew at a steady rate, increasing to 1,683 in 1811, 1,901 in 1821, 2,159 in 1831, 2,442 in 1841, and 2,618 in 1851. In 1871 the township had a population of 2,777 people. The population grew at a faster rate towards the late 19th century and by 1901 it stood at 4,451 people. There has been little fluctuation in population since, and in the 1991 census the town had a population of 4,836. In the 2001 census, 4,984 people were recorded, and 4,821 in 2011.At the 2011 census, 57....
Keswick is the home of the Theatre by the Lake, opened in 1999. The theatre serves a dual purpose as the permanent home of a professional repertory company and a venue for visiting performers and festivals. It replaced the Century Theatre or "Blue Box", which had spent 25 years in semi-retirement on a permanent lakeside site in Keswick, after a career of similar length as a mobile theatre. The Alhambra cinema in St John Street, opened in 1913, is one of the oldest continuously functioning cinemas in the country; it is equipped with digital technology and satellite receiving equipment to allow the live screening of plays, operas and ballet from the National Theatre, Royal Opera Houseand other venues. The town is the site of the Derwent Pencil Museum. One of the exhibits is what is claimed to be the world's largest coloured pencil. Fitz Park, on the bank of the River Greta, is home to the Keswick Museum and Art Gallery, a Victorian museum which features the Musical Stones of Skiddaw,...
The Crosthwaite Free Grammar School, adjoining Crosthwaite churchyard, was an ancient institution, its date of foundation uncertain. In 1819 the parish of Crosthwaite had five or six schools in the town and the outlying areas, with a total of 332 children. By 1833 Keswick had twelve daily schools, including a new National School at High Hill. The new parish church of Keswick, St John's, started educational work in 1840 with a Sunday school which also educated infant boys, and later girls, on weekdays. A full-time boys' school opened in 1853. For older pupils, Keswick School, the free co-educational grammar school, successor to the Crosthwaite Free Grammar School, opened at a site diagonally opposite Greta Bridge in 1898. In 1951 a new secondary modernschool was built at Lairthwaite in Underskiddaw. Junior education is provided by St Herbert's School, which had a roll of 263 in 2013. At senior level, Keswick and Lairthwaite schools merged in 1980 as a single comprehensive secondary s...
Keswick is home to Keswick Football Club. The principal team plays in the Westmorland League Division One, and it also has a reserve team which plays in Westmorland League Division Two, a female team which plays in the Cumbria League, juniors who compete in the under-16, under-14, under-12 and under-10 categories in the Penrith Junior Football League; there is a veteran team, which competes in the Cumbria League. Keswick Rugby Union Football Club, established in 1879, plays at Davidson Park, and has teams that play in the Cumbrian League and the Cumbria Rugby Union Raging Bull Competition.The rugby club is involved in the organisation of the Keswick Half Marathon, usually held in the first week of May. Keswick Tennis Club has grass courts in upper Fitz Park, and also runs hard courts on Keswick's Community Sports Area in the lower park area. Keswick Cricket Club was established in the 1880s. Its principal team competes in the North Lancashire and Cumbria Cricket League, Premier Divi...
Keswick is on the A66 road linking Workington and Penrith, as well as the A591, linking the town to Windermere, Kendal and Carlisle (via the A595). There are no rail links to Keswick; the line built in the 1860s for the Cockermouth, Keswick and Penrith Railway closed in 1972.[n 5] Since the 1990s a plan to rebuild it has been under discussion. Some 90 percent of the earthworks of the railway still exist, but according to 2000 estimates, a reopening would cost £25 million.In 2014 the only public transport serving the towns and villages on the old railway route is a bus service operating at mostly hourly intervals. The bus journey from the main line station at Penrith to Keswick takes a scheduled 47 minutes. The town is served by other bus routes providing direct connections with Carlisle, Cockermouth, Kendal, Lancaster, Penrith, Windermere, Workington, and other towns and villages in the north west.The flow of traffic from Penrith to Cockermouth and beyond was eased after the A66 was...
Cumbria is a large area with several relatively isolated districts, so there is quite a large variation in accent, especially between north and south or the coastal towns. There are some uniform features that should be taken into account when pronouncing dialect words.
Dalston is a large village and civil parish within the Carlisle district of Cumbria, historically part of Cumberland. It is situated on the B5299 road 4 miles (6 km) south-south-west of Carlisle city centre, and approximately 5 miles (8 km) from Junction 42 of the M6 motorway . The village is on the River Caldew, just to the north of where the ...