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  1. Eastern Catholic Churches - Wikipedia › wiki › Eastern_Catholic_Churches

    The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches and in some historical cases referred to as Uniates, are twenty-three Eastern Christian sui iuris (autonomous) particular churches of the Catholic Church, in full communion with the pope in Rome.

  2. Eastern Catholic churches - Simple English Wikipedia, the ... › wiki › Eastern_Catholic_churches

    The Eastern Catholic Churches are autocephalous Christian churches. They recognize the Bishop of Rome as their spiritual leader, like other Catholics.They differ on ideas as how a mass should be organised, or which prayers are more important than others. In total there are 23 such churches, the probably best known are listed below: Coptic Catholic Church Maronite Church Armenian Catholic Church Chaldean Catholic Church Syro-Malabar Catholic Church Syro-Malankara Catholic Church

  3. Catholic particular churches and liturgical rites - Wikipedia › wiki › Rites_of_Eastern_Catholic

    There are 24 such autonomous Catholic churches: One Latin Church (i.e., Western) and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches", a distinction by now more historical than geographical. Although each of them has its own specific heritage, they are all in full communion with the Pope in Rome .

  4. Eastern Catholic canon law - Wikipedia › wiki › Eastern_Catholic_canon_law
    • Overview
    • History
    • Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches

    The Eastern Catholic canon law is the law of the 23 Catholic sui juris particular churches of the Eastern Catholic tradition. Eastern Catholic canon law includes both the common tradition among all Eastern Catholic Churches, now chiefly contained in the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, as well as the particular law proper to each individual sui juris particular Eastern Catholic Church. Oriental canon law is distinguished from Latin canon law, which developed along a separate line in the r

    A nomocanon is a collection of ecclesiastical law, consisting of the elements from both the civil law and the canon law. Collections of this kind were found only in Eastern law. The Greek Church has two principal nomocanonical collections. The first nomocanon is the "Nomocanon of

    Following the example of the famous council of Lebanon for the Maronites held in 1730, and that of Zamosc for the Ruthenians in 1720, the Eastern Churches, at the suggestion of Leo XIII, drew up in plenary assembly their own local law: the Syrians at Sciarfa in 1888; the Ruthenia

    Until 1917, the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith had a division for the "Affairs of the Oriental Rite", which ceased to exist on 30 November 1917. Benedict XV founded the Sacred Congregation for the Oriental Church by the motu proprio Dei Providentis. The Sacr

    The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches is the 1990 codification of the common portions of the Canon Law for the 23 of the 24 sui iuris Churches in the Catholic Church. It is divided into 30 titles and has a total of 1540 canons, with an introductory section of preliminary canons. Pope John Paul II promulgated the CCEO on 18 October 1990 by the document Sacri Canones, and the CCEO came into force on 1 October 1991. The 23 sui iuris Churches which collectively make up the Eastern Catholic Chur

  5. Eastern Orthodox Church - Wikipedia › wiki › Eastern_Orthodox_Church

    The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods.

  6. Category:Eastern Catholic Churches - Wikimedia Commons › wiki › Category:Eastern

    Jun 22, 2018 · Media in category "Eastern Catholic Churches". The following 16 files are in this category, out of 16 total. Benedictus-XV oriental bishops.jpg 1,024 × 726; 177 KB. Church-In Basra-Iraq كنيسة في البصرة العراق.JPG 1,936 × 2,592; 1.38 MB. Eastern Catholic cemetery.jpg 1,280 × 960; 338 KB.

  7. Theological differences between the Catholic Church and the ... › wiki › Theological_differences
    • Areas of Doctrinal Agreement
    • East–West Schism
    • Papal Primacy
    • Filioque
    • Neo-Palamism: Theoria and Hesychasm
    • Future Directions
    • External Links

    Both churches accept the decisions of the first seven Ecumenical Councilsof the undivided Church. These are: There is therefore doctrinal agreement on: Both churches reject many novel Protestant doctrines. Some important examples are the Protestant doctrines of salvation through faith alone (without the God-given virtue of charity/love; faith without charity and works is called dead in James 2, and charity is called greater than faith in 1 Corinthians 13 and elsewhere) and sola scriptura (which denies the authority of the church, sacred tradition and the consensus of the church fathers).

    The Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church have been in a state of official schism from one another since the East–West Schismof 1054. This schism was caused by historical and language differences, and the ensuing theological differences between the Western and Eastern churches. The Roman Empire permanently withdrew from the City of Rome in 751, thus ending the Byzantine Papacy. The subsequent mutual alienation of the Greek-speaking East and the Latin-speaking West led to increasing ignorance of the theological and ecclesiological developments of each tradition. The Eastern Church and the Western Church used respectively Greek and Latin as its medium of communication. Translations did not always correspond exactly. This also led to misunderstandings.

    Papal primacy, also known as the "primacy of the Bishop of Rome," is an ecclesiastical doctrine concerning the respect and authority that is due to the pope from other bishops and their episcopal sees. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches, some understand the primacy of the Bishop of Rome to be merely one of greater honour, regarding him as primus inter pares ("first among equals"), without effective power over other churches. Other Orthodox Christian theologians, however, view primacy as authoritative power: the expression, manifestation and realization in one bishop of the power of all the bishops and of the unity of the Church. The Roman Catholic Church attributes to the primacy of the Pope "full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered," with a power that it attributes also to the entire body of the bishops united with the pope.The power that it attributes to the pope's primatial authority has limitations that are official,...

    Differences over this doctrine and the question of papal primacy have been and remain primary causes of schism between the Eastern Orthodox and Western churches. The term has been an ongoing source of conflict between Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity, contributing, in major part, to the East–West Schismof 1054 and proving to be an obstacle to attempts to reunify the two sides.


    The 20th century saw the rise of neo-Palamism, c.q. "Neo-Orthodox Movement," in the Eastern Orthodox Churches. According to this point of view, which arose in defense of the Palamite distinction between essence and energia, western theology is dominated by rational philosophy, while Orthodox theology is based on the experiential vision of God and the highest truth. According to neo-Palamism, this is a main division between East and West. Neo-Palamism has its roots in the Hesychast controversy...

    Rational and mystical theology

    According to these modern Eastern Orthodox theologians, western theology depends too much on kataphatic theology. According to Steenberg, Eastern theologians assert that Christianity in essence is apodictic truth, in contrast to the dialectic, dianoia, or rationalised knowledge which is the arrived at truth by way of philosophical speculation. While Thomas Aquinas argued that kataphatic and apophatic theology need to balance each other, Vladimir Lossky argued, based on his reading of Dionysiu...


    Hesychasm, "to keep stillness," is a mystical tradition of contemplative prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, which already existed in the fourth century AD with the Desert Fathers. Its aim is theosis, deification obtained through the practice of contemplative prayer, the first stage of theoria, leading to the "vision of God".[note 3]It consists of three stages, namely catharsis, theoria, and completion of deification, c.q. theosis. The knowledge of God is attained by theoria, "the vision o...

    Jeffrey D. Finch claims that "the future of East–West rapprochement appears to be overcoming the modern polemics of neo-scholasticism and neo-Palamism". The Catholic Church considers that the differences between Eastern and Western theology are complementary rather than contradictory, as stated in the decree Unitatis redintegratio of the Second Vatican Council, which declared: The Catholic Church's attitude was also expressed by Pope John Paul II in the image of the Church "breathing with her two lungs".He meant that there should be a combination of the more rational, juridical, organization-minded "Latin" temperament with the intuitive, mystical and contemplative spirit found in the East. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, citing documents of the Second Vatican Council and of Pope Paul VI, states: On 10 July 2007 the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith published a document, approved by Pope Benedict XVI, that stated that the Eastern churches are separated from Rome (the m...

    BBC Radio 4 round table: In Our Time: Schism (16 October 2003)(audio)
    [permanent dead link] IOCS link for interfaith discussions at University of Cambridge
  8. Eastern Catholic Churches wiki | TheReaderWiki › en › Eastern_Catholic

    The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches and in some historical cases referred to as Uniates, are twenty-three Eastern Christian sui iuris (autonomous) particular churches of the Catholic Church, in full communion with the pope in Rome.

  9. Eastern Catholic Churches | Religion-wiki | Fandom › wiki › Eastern_Catholic_Church
    • Juridical Status
    • Terminology
    • Eastern and Western (Latin) Catholics
    • Supreme Authority of The Church
    • Eastern Patriarchs and Major Archbishops
    • Historical Background
    • Modern Reforms
    • List of Eastern Catholic Churches
    • Biritual Faculties
    • Clerical Celibacy

    The term Eastern Catholic Churches refers to 22 of the 23 autonomous particular Churches in communion with the Bishop of Rome. (Every diocese is a particular Church, but not an autonomous one in the sense in which the word is applied to these 22 Churches.) They follow different Eastern Christian liturgical traditions: Alexandrian, Antiochian, Armenian, Byzantine and Chaldean. Canonically, each Eastern Catholic Church is sui iuris or autonomous with respect to other Catholic Churches, whether Eastern or Latin, though all accept the spiritual and juridical authority of the Pope. Thus a Maronite Catholic is normally subject only to a Maronite bishop, not, for example to a Ukrainian or Latin Catholic bishop. However, if in a country the members of some particular Church are so few that no hierarchy of their own has been established there, their spiritual care is entrusted to a bishop of another ritual Church. This holds also for Latin Catholics: in Eritrea, they are placed in the care o...

    Eastern Catholics are in full communion with the Roman Pontiff, and in this sense are members of the Roman Catholic Church, but some feel they are not "Roman Catholics" in the narrower senses of that term, since they are not members of the local particular Church of Rome nor of the Western or Latin Church, which uses the Latin liturgical rites, among which the Roman Rite is the most widespread. Maronites, on the other hand, "are proud to call themselves Roman Catholics".

    Most Eastern Catholic Churches arose when a group within an ancient Christian Church that was in disagreement with the see of Rome chose to enter into full communion with that see. The Syro-Malabar Church, based in Kerala, India, has never been out of communion with Rome. Other Christians of Kerala, who were originally of the same East-Syrian tradition, passed instead to the West-Syrian tradition and now form part of Oriental Orthodoxy (some from the Oriental Orthodox in India reunited with the Catholic Church in 1930 and became the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church). Maronite Church also claims never to have been separated from Rome, and has no counterpart Orthodox Church out of communion with the Pope. It is therefore inaccurate to refer to it as a "Uniate" Church. The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church has also never been out of communion with Rome, but, unlike the Maronite Church, it uses the same liturgical rite as the Eastern Orthodox Churches. The canon law that the Eastern Catholic...

    Under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, the Roman Pontiff (the Pope) enjoys supreme, full, immediate and universal ordinary power in the Church which he can always freely exercise.The full description is under Title 3, Canons 42 to 54 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.

    The Catholic patriarchs and major archbishops derive their titles from the sees of Alexandria (Copts), Antioch (Syrians, Melkites, Maronites), Babylonia (Chaldaeans), Cilicia (Armenians), Kyiv-Halych (Ukrainians), Ernakulam-Angamaly (Syro-Malabars), Trivandrum (Syro-Malankaras), and Făgăraş-Alba Iulia (Romanians). The Eastern Churches, their leaders and synods are governed under Titles 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, respectively, under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.

    Communion between Christian Churches has been broken over matters of faith, when each side accused the other of heresy or departure from the true faith (orthodoxy). Communion has been broken also because of disputes that do not involve matters of faith, as when there is disagreement about questions of authority or the legitimacy of the election of a particular bishop. In these latter cases, each side accuses the other of schism, but not of heresy. Major breaches of communion: 1. The Churches that accepted the teaching of the 431 Council of Ephesus (which condemned the views of Nestorius) classified as heretics those who rejected the Council's teaching. Those who accepted it lived mostly in the Roman Empire and classified themselves as orthodox; they considered the others, who lived mainly under Persian rule, as Nestorian heretics. These had a period of great expansion in Asia. Monuments of their presence still exist in China. Now they are relatively few in numbers and are divided in...

    Starting in 1964, a series of reforms have been issued concerning Eastern Catholic Churches that have corrected a number of past errors. Disputes between Latin bishops and Eastern Catholics had led to difficulties that in the United States culminated in schism. There had been confusion on the part of Western clergy as to the legitimacy of a presence of the Churches of the East in countries seen as belonging to the West, despite firm and repeated papal confirmation of these Churches universal character over the centuries. The Second Vatican Council brought the reform impulse to visible fruition. Several documents, both during and after Vatican II have led to significant reform and development within the Eastern Catholic Churches.

    The Holy See's Annuario Pontificio gives the following list of Eastern Catholic Churches with residence and of countries (or other political areas, consisting of more than country) in which they possess an episcopal ecclesiastical jurisdiction(date of union or foundation in parenthesis, membership in brackets): 1. Alexandrian liturgical tradition 1.1. Coptic Catholic Church (patriarchate): Cairo, [163,849], Egypt (1741) 1.2. Ethiopian Catholic Church (metropolia): Addis Ababa, [208,093], Ethiopia, Eritrea (1846) 2. Antiochian (Antiochene or West-Syrian) liturgical tradition 2.1. Maronite Church (patriarchate): Bkerke, [3,105,278], Lebanon, Cyprus, Jordan, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Egypt, Syria, Argentina, Brazil, United States, Australia, Canada, Mexico (union re-affirmed 1182) 2.2. Syriac Catholic Church (patriarchate): Beirut,[131,692], Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Palestinian Authority, Egypt, Sudan, Syria, Turkey, United States and Canada, Venezuela (1781) 2.3. Syro-Malan...

    While "clerics and members of institutes of consecrated life are bound to observe their own rite faithfully," priests are occasionally given permission to celebrate the liturgy of a rite other than the priest's own rite, by what is known as a grant of "biritual faculties". The reason for this permission is usually the service of Catholics who have no priest of their own rite. Thus priests of the Syro-Malabar Churchworking as missionaries in areas of India in which there were no structures of their own Church, were authorized, while remaining priests of the Syro-Malabar Church, to use the Roman Rite in those areas, and Latin-Rite priests are, after due preparation, given permission to use an Eastern rite for the service of members of an Eastern Catholic Church living in a country in which there are no priests of their own particular Church. The Pope, to whose pastoral guidance the individual Churches both Eastern and Western are all equally entrusted, can celebrate the liturgy accord...

    Eastern and Western Christian churches have different traditions concerning clerical celibacy. These differences and the resulting controversies have played a role in the relationship between the two groups in some Western countries. Most Eastern Churches distinguish between "monastic" and "non-monastic" clergy. Monastics do not necessarily live as monks or in monasteries, but have spent at least part of their period of training in such a context. Their monastic vowsinclude a vow of celibate chastity. Bishops are normally selected from the monastic clergy, and in most Eastern Churches a large percentage of priests and deacons also are celibate, while a portion of the clergy (typically, parish priests) may be married. If a future priest or deacon is to be married, his marriage must take place before ordination to the diaconate. While in some countries the marriage continues usually to be arranged by the families, cultural changes sometimes make it difficult for such seminarians to fi...

  10. Patriarchate - Wikipedia › wiki › Patriarchates

    The East-West Schism of 1054 split the Latin-rite see of Rome from the four Byzantine-rite patriarchates of the East, thus forming distinct Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. The four Eastern Orthodox patriarchates (Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem), along with their Latin Catholic counterpart in the West, Rome, are distinguished as "senior" (Greek: πρεσβυγενή, presbygenē, "senior-born") or "ancient" (παλαίφατα, palèphata, "of ancient fame ...

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