Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government that combines a general government (the central or "federal" government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
Federalism in the United States is the constitutional division of power between U.S. state governments and the federal government of the United States. Since the founding of the country, and particularly with the end of the American Civil War, power shifted away from the states and toward the national government.
- Current proposals for a world federation
- In popular culture
World federalism or global federalism is the political concept of an additional, global layer of democratic governance above regional unions or nation states based on federalist principles. A world federation would have authority on issues of global reach, while the power over local matters would reside in the members of such federation, the overall sovereignty over the world population would largely reside in the federal government. World federalism is distinguished from unitary world governmen
The United Nations, beyond the United Nations Security Council, is limited to a mostly advisory role. Its stated purpose is to foster cooperation between existing national governments rather than exert authority over them.
A unitary world government would consist of a single, central government body with supreme sovereignty. While administrative subdivisions might exist, their powers are delegated by the central government. In a world federation based on subsidiarity, the delegation is the other wa
A confederation is a union of sovereign nations, which are pursuing a common cause. Member states in a confederation are sometimes free to secede from the confederation. While a confederation is not an effective structure for the problems world federalism is most successful in so
World federalism has evolved from more general proposals for a world government. Proposals for a world government can be found as far back as Ancient Greece, India and China, mostly tied to a mystical cosmology. Alexander the Great pursued the goal of conquering the entire known
The rise of nationalism and the growing threat of fascism in Europe caused a resurgence of the idea of a unified world under democratic principles. With the release of the book Union Now, Clarence Streit proposed a political union of democratic nations. The United States, United
There are a number of proposals for the establishment of a world federation. 1. Direct reform of the UN Charter 2. Incremental reform of the UN, for example through the inclusion of an elected UN Parliament 3. Regional unification 4. League of Democratic Nations 5. Entirely new world government institution 6. Strengthening of existing global institutions, such as the WTO
Criticism of world federalism falls into four broad categories: 1. infeasible: The establishment of a world federation would require extraordinary amounts of coordination and trust from all nations of the world, which are in economic and political competition with each other. Critics argue that world federalism is thus an unreachable utopia. Proponents of world federalism point to existential crises, such as climate change, war and pandemics, which make global coordination necessary and inevitab
A world federation has been mentioned in several works of fiction, along with more general concepts of world government. 1. Anticipations by H. G. Wells 2. The Shape of Things to Come by H. G. Wells 3. Men Like Gods by H. G. Wells 4. Looking Backwards by Edward Bellamy 5. The World Set Free by H. G. Wells 6. Starship Troopers by Robert A. Heinlein
Federalism in the United States is the relationship between the state governments and the federal government. This relationship is set out in the United States Constitution. The Constitution says which powers the federal government has, and which powers belong to the states.
Federalism in the United Kingdom refers to the distribution of power between countries and regions of the United Kingdom.
New Federalism is a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states.The primary objective of New Federalism, unlike that of the eighteenth-century political philosophy of Federalism, is the restoration to the states of some of the autonomy and power which they lost to the federal government as a consequence of ...
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- General perspectives
- Ethnic federalism in specific countries
Ethnic federalism is a federal system of national government in which the federated units are defined according to ethnicity. Related terms are multi-ethnic federalism and ethnofederalism. This type of federation is identified above all with the governance of Meles Zenawi from the 1990s in Ethiopia, where it has sometimes been known as Zenawism. Meles Zenawi and his government adopted ethnic federalism to establish the equality of all ethnic groups in present day Ethiopia. Features of ethnic fed
In an ethnic federation some or all of the federated units are constructed as far as possible to follow ethnic boundaries, providing ethnic communities with a measure of autonomy. Because the federation remains one state, this is distinguished from outright partition. Such a syst
One of the main motivations for introducing ethnic federalism is to reduce conflict among the groups within the state, by granting each group local self-government and guaranteed representation at the centre. Thus an ethnic federal system may have particular appeal where serious
Ethnic federalism as an institutional choice to alleviate ethnic tensions within a country has often been criticised, both on conceptual and empirical grounds. At the theoretical level the difficulties include::16 1. The problematic concept of "ethnicity" as an ordering principle
Ethiopia has over 80 ethno-linguistic groups and a long history of ethnic conflict. After 17 years of armed struggle, in 1991 Meles Zenawi's party replaced the Derg. Zenawi, up to then leader of the Tigrayan People's Liberation Front and the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democ
The ethnic aspect of a new federal structure in Nepal has been a source of contention through the constitution-building process of recent years. Multiparty democracy was introduced in Nepal in 1990 after a popular uprising led by the Congress party and the United Left Front, a co
Following the secession in 1971 of East Pakistan to become Bangladesh, the Pakistani government sought ways to accommodate the ethno-nationalist demands of the different groups within what had been West Pakistan. The 1973 Constitution imposed a federal structure giving autonomy t
- Nationalist-era proposals
- Communist-era developments
- Future proposals
Chinese federalism refers to political theories which argue that China's central government should share sovereignty with regional entities, under a form of federalism. Such proposals were made in the early twentieth century, in connection with the end of the Qing dynasty; as well as recently, with a view to providing checks against the power of the central government, as well as settling the relationship between Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and other potential political entities. W
The Revive China Society, founded in November 1894 by Sun Yat-sen, was among the first to suggest that a future Chinese government should be established on federal lines—a feeling expressed in the organisation's oath, "Expel the northern barbarians, revive Zhōnghuá, and establish a unified government". The term hézhòng, literally meaning "many unified as one", refers to a federal structure such as the United States of America. During the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, fourteen provinces ...
After Chinese Communists established the Chinese Soviet Republic in Jiangxi, they aimed at a political system modeled after the union republics of the Soviet Union. According to their plans, China was to be a Soviet federal republic with several autonomous republics. During the period of the Long March they established a small autonomous republic for Tibetans in Sichuan. In Shaanxi, however, they changed their nationality policy, abandoning their plan to establish autonomous republics in favor o
Charter 08, co-written by the formerly incarcerated human rights activist and Nobel Peace Prize winner Liu Xiaobo calls for the establishment of a Chinese "Federal Republic". The relevant proposal states: "A Federated Republic. A democratic China should seek to act as a responsib
A Federal Republic of China is a proposed future federal republic encompassing mainland China, Macau, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. This "Third Republic" is proposed by supporters of the Tibet independence movement, although it would not in effect create an independent Tibet. Yan Jiaqi,
Another concept is that of a United China or a United States of China. First devised in the early 1920s by Chen Jiongming, it was modeled closely after the United States of America. Given the political, social and linguistic realities of China in the warlord period, Chen Jiongmin
Dual federalism, also known as layer-cake federalism or divided sovereignty, is a political arrangement in which power is divided between the federal and state governments in clearly defined terms, with state governments exercising those powers accorded to them without interference from the federal government.
Anti-Federalism was a late-18th century movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, gave state governments more authority.