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  1. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/.../Ferdinand_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

    Ferdinand was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain, the second son of Queen Joanna I of Castile from the House of Trastámara (herself the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs Isabel I of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon) and Habsburg Archduke Philip the Handsome, who was heir to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.

  2. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org/en/Ferdinand_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
    • Biography
    • Hungary and The Ottomans
    • Consolidation of Power in Bohemia
    • Ferdinand and The Augsburg Peace 1555
    • Government
    • Legacy
    • Name in Other Languages
    • Marriage and Children
    • Titles and Styles
    • Coinage

    Overview

    Fer­di­nand was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain, the son of Queen Joanna I of Castile from the House of Trastámara (her­self the daugh­ter of the Catholic Mon­archs Is­abel I of Castile and Fer­di­nand of Aragon) and Hab­s­burg Arch­duke Philip the Hand­some, who was heir to Max­i­m­il­ian I, Holy Roman Em­peror. Fer­di­nand shared his cus­toms, cul­ture, and even his birth­day with his ma­ter­nal grand­fa­ther Fer­di­nand II of Aragon. He was born, raised, and ed­u­cated in Spain, and did n...

    Ac­cord­ing to the terms set at the First Con­gress of Vi­enna in 1515, Fer­di­nand mar­ried Anne Jagiel­lonica, daugh­ter of King Vladis­laus II of Bo­hemia and Hun­gary on 22 July 1515. Both Hun­gary and Bo­hemia were elec­tive monar­chies, where the par­lia­ments had the sov­er­eign right to de­cide about the per­son of the king. There­fore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bo­hemia and of Hun­gary, at the bat­tle of Mohácson 29 Au­gust 1526, Fer­di­nand im­me­di­ately ap­plied to the par­lia­ments of Hun­gary and Bo­hemia to par­tic­i­pate as a can­di­date in the king elec­tions. On 24 Oc­to­ber 1526 the Bo­hemian Diet, act­ing under the in­flu­ence of chan­cel­lor Adam of Hradce, elected Fer­di­nand King of Bo­hemia under con­di­tions of con­firm­ing tra­di­tional priv­i­leges of the es­tates and also mov­ing the Hab­s­burg court to Prague. The suc­cess was only par­tial, as the Diet re­fused to recog­nise Fer­di­nand as hered­i­tary lord of the King­dom....

    When he took con­trol of the Bo­hemian lands in the 1520s, their re­li­gious sit­u­a­tion was com­plex. Its Ger­man pop­u­la­tion was com­posed of Catholics and Luther­ans. Some Czechs were re­cep­tive to Lutheranism, but most of them ad­hered to Utraquist Hus­sitism, while a mi­nor­ity of them ad­hered to Roman Catholi­cism. A sig­nif­i­cant num­ber of Utraquists favoured an al­liance with the Protestants.At first, Fer­di­nand ac­cepted this sit­u­a­tion and he gave con­sid­er­able free­dom to the Bo­hemian es­tates. In the 1540s, the sit­u­a­tion changed. In Ger­many, while most Protes­tant princes had hith­erto fa­vored ne­go­ti­a­tion with the Em­peror and while many had sup­ported him in his wars, they be­came in­creas­ingly con­fronta­tional dur­ing this decade. Some of them even went to war against the Em­pire, and many Bo­hemian (Ger­man or Czech) Protes­tants or Utraquists sym­pa­thized with them. Fer­di­nand and his son Max­i­m­il­ian par­tic­i­pated in the vic­to­ri­ous c...

    In the 1550s, Fer­di­nand man­aged to win some key vic­to­ries on the im­pe­r­ial scene. Un­like his brother, he op­posed Al­brecht of Bran­den­burg-Kulm­bach and par­tic­i­pated in his defeat.This de­feat, along with his Ger­man ways, made Fer­di­nand more pop­u­lar than the Em­peror among Protes­tant princes. This al­lowed him to play a crit­i­cal role in the set­tle­ment of the re­li­gious issue in the Em­pire. After decades of re­li­gious and po­lit­i­cal un­rest in the Ger­man states, Charles V or­dered a gen­eral Diet in Augs­burg at which the var­i­ous states would dis­cuss the re­li­gious prob­lem and its so­lu­tion. Charles him­self did not at­tend, and del­e­gated au­thor­ity to his brother, Fer­di­nand, to "act and set­tle" dis­putes of ter­ri­tory, re­li­gion and local power.At the con­fer­ence, which opened on 5 Feb­ru­ary, Fer­di­nand ca­joled, per­suaded and threat­ened the var­i­ous rep­re­sen­ta­tives into agree­ment on three im­por­tant prin­ci­ples pro­mul­gated o...

    The west­ern rump of Hun­gary over which Fer­di­nand re­tained do­min­ion be­came known as Royal Hun­gary. As the ruler of Aus­tria, Bo­hemia and Royal Hun­gary, Fer­di­nand adopted a pol­icy of cen­tral­i­sa­tion and, in com­mon with other mon­archs of the time, the con­struc­tion of an ab­solute monar­chy. In 1527, soon after as­cend­ing the throne, he pub­lished a con­sti­tu­tion for his hered­i­tary do­mains (Hof­staats­ord­nung) and es­tab­lished Aus­trian-style in­sti­tu­tions in Press­burg for Hun­gary, in Prague for Bo­hemia, and in Bres­lau for Sile­sia. Op­po­si­tion from the no­bles in those realms forced him to con­cede the in­de­pen­dence of these in­sti­tu­tions from su­per­vi­sion by the Aus­trian gov­ern­ment in Vi­ennain 1559. After the Ot­toman in­va­sion of Hun­gary the tra­di­tional Hun­gar­ian coro­na­tion city, Székesfehérvár came under Turk­ish oc­cu­pa­tion. Thus, in 1536 the Hun­gar­ian Diet de­cided that a new place for coro­na­tion of the king as well as a...

    Fer­di­nand's legacy ul­ti­mately proved en­dur­ing. Though lack­ing re­sources, he man­aged to de­fend his land against the Ot­tomans with lim­ited sup­port from his brother, and even se­cured a part of Hun­gary that would later pro­vide the basis for the con­quest of the whole king­dom by the Hab­s­burgs. In his own pos­ses­sions, he built a tax sys­tem that, though im­per­fect, would con­tinue to be used by his successors.His han­dling of the Protes­tant Re­for­ma­tion proved more flex­i­ble and more ef­fec­tive than that of his brother and he played a key part in the set­tle­ment of 1555, which started an era of peace in Ger­many. His states­man­ship, over­all, was cau­tious and ef­fec­tive, well-suited to a medium-sized col­lec­tion of ter­ri­to­ries fac­ing dan­ger­ous threats. On the other hand, when he en­gaged in more au­da­cious en­deav­ours, like his of­fen­sives against Buda and Pest, it often ended in fail­ure. Fer­di­nand was also a pa­tron of the arts. He em­bell­ishe...

    Ger­man, Czech, Sloven­ian, Slo­vak, Ser­bian, Croa­t­ian: Ferdinand I.; Hun­gar­ian: I. Ferdinánd; Span­ish: Fer­nan­do I; Turk­ish: 1. Ferdinand; Pol­ish: Fer­dy­nand I.

    On 26 May 1521 in Linz, Aus­tria, Fer­di­nand mar­ried Anna of Bo­hemia and Hun­gary (1503–1547), daugh­ter of Vladis­laus II of Bo­hemia and Hun­gary and his wife Anne de Foix. They had fif­teen chil­dren, all but two of whom reached adult­hood:

    After as­cend­ing the Im­pe­r­ial Throne Fer­di­nand's full tit­u­la­ture, rarely used, went as fol­lows:Fer­di­nand, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Em­peror, for­ever Au­gust, King in Ger­many, of Hun­gary, Bo­hemia, Dal­ma­tia, Croa­tia, Slavo­nia, Rama, Ser­bia, Gali­cia, Lodome­ria, Cu­ma­nia and Bul­garia, etc. Prince-In­fante in Spain, Arch­duke of Aus­tria, Duke of Bur­gundy, Bra­bant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Mar­grave of Moravia, Duke of Lux­em­burg, the Upper and Lower Sile­sia, Würt­tem­berg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Princely Count of Hab­s­burg, Tyrol, Fer­rette, Ky­burg, Go­rizia, Land­grave of Al­sace, Mar­grave of the Holy Roman Em­pire, Enns, Bur­gau, the Upper and Lower Lusa­tia, Lord of the Wendish March, Por­de­none and Salins, etc. etc.

    Fer­di­nand I has been the main motif for many col­lec­tor coins and medals, the most re­cent one is the fa­mous sil­ver 20-euro Re­nais­sance coinis­sued on 12 June 2002. A por­trait of Fer­di­nand I is shown in the re­verse of the coin, while in the ob­verse a view of the Swiss Gate of the Hof­burg Palace can be seen.

  3. Armor of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armor_of_Ferdinand_I,_Holy...

    The Armor of Emperor Ferdinand I is a suit of plate armor created by the Nuremberg armorer Kunz Lochner in 1549 for the future Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor. One of several suits of armor made for the Emperor Ferdinand during the wars of Reformation and conflict with the Ottomans, the etched but functional armor is thought by scholars to symbolize and document the role of the Habsburg ...

  4. Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_II,_Holy_Roman...

    Childhood. Born in the castle in Graz on 9 July 1578, Ferdinand was the son of Charles II, Archduke of Austria, and Maria of Bavaria. Charles II, who was the youngest son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, had inherited the Inner Austrian provinces—Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Gorizia, Fiume, Trieste and parts of Istria and Friuli—from his father in 1564.

  5. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor - WikiMili, The Best ...

    wikimili.com/en/Ferdinand_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

    Mar 22, 2020 · Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I ) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, king of Bohemia and Royal Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death in 1564. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his eld

  6. Ferdinand I, Haly Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    sco.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_I,_Haly_Roman...

    Ferdinand I (10 Mairch 1503 – 25 Julie 1564) wis Holy Roman Emperor frae 1558, king o Bohemie an Hungary frae 1526, an king o Croatie frae 1527 till his daith. Issue. Airchduchess Elisabeth o Austrick (9 Julie 1526 – 15 Juin 1545) mairit Keeng Sigismund II Augustus o Poland but haed nae issue.

    • 5 Januar 1558 – 25 Julie 1564
    • Charles V
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  8. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor - The Reader Wiki, Reader ...

    thereaderwiki.com/en/Ferdinand_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

    Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, king of Bohemia and Royal Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death in 1564.[1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of hi

  9. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Leopold

    The second son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain, Leopold became heir apparent in 1654 by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV. Elected in 1658, Leopold ruled the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1705, becoming the longest-ruling Habsburg emperor (at 46 years and 9 months).

  10. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_III,_Holy_Roman...
    • Overview
    • Biography
    • Death and burial place
    • Marriages and children
    • Music

    Ferdinand III was from 1621 Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary from 1625, King of Croatia and Bohemia from 1627 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1637 until his death in 1657. Ferdinand ascended the throne at the beginning of the last decade of the Thirty Years' War and introduced lenient policies to depart from old ideas of divine rights under his father, as he had wished to end the war quickly. As the numerous battles had not resulted in sufficient military containment of the Protestant enemies an

    Ferdinand was born in Graz, the eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg and his first wife, Maria Anna of Bavaria, and was baptised as Ferdinand Ernst. He grew up in Carinthia with loving care from his parents and he developed great affection for his siblings and his fathe

    After Wallenstein's assassination, Ferdinand III took command of the imperial army on May 2, 1634 supported by the generals Gallas and Piccolomini, the military adviser, Johann Kaspar von Stadion and the political adviser Obersthofmeister Imperial Count Maximilian von und zu Trau

    Ferdinand III was elected King of the Romans at the Diet of Regensburg on December 22, 1636. Upon the death of his father on 15 February 1637, Ferdinand became emperor. His political adviser Obersthofmeister Maximilian von und zu Trauttmansdorff advanced to the position of Prime

    Ferdinand died on 2 April 1657, and rests in the Capuchin Crypt in Vienna. His interior organs were separately buried in the Ducal Crypt.

    On 20 February 1631, Ferdinand III married his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. They were first cousins, as Maria Anna's mother was a sister of Ferdinand's father. They were parents to six children

    Ferdinand III was a well-known patron of music and a composer. He studied music under Giovanni Valentini, who bequeathed his musical works to him, and had close ties with Johann Jakob Froberger, one of the most important keyboard composers of the 17th century. Froberger lamented the emperor's death and dedicated to him one of his most celebrated works, Lamentation faite sur la mort très douloureuse de Sa Majesté Impériale, Ferdinand le troisième; a tombeau for Ferdinand III's death was ...

  11. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

    Francis I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany and of Jerusalem, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Lorraine, Bar, and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Teschen, Prince of Charleville, Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson and Nomeny, Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden ...