Francis II (German: Franz II.; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor from 1792 to 1806 and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria from 1804 to 1835. He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French .
- Early life
Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II and his wife Maria...
As the head of the Holy Roman Empire and the ruler of the...
- Domestic policy
The violent events of the French Revolution impressed...
- Later years
On 2 March 1835, 43 years and a day after his father's...
- Early life
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor – He held the title of Emperor of Austria for a longer period of time that he held the title ofHoly Roman Emperor. He ruled over the Austrian Empire for 31 years, while he ruled over the Holy Roman Empire for 14 years. 2601:241:300:C930:841C:1F52:9AB4:14BE 21:21, 28 January 2018 (UTC)
The final Holy Roman emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution. The term sacrum (i.e., "holy") in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa .
- Wars with France and Napoleon
- Formation of the Confederation of the Rhine
- Abdication of Francis II
The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire occurred de facto on 6 August 1806, when the last Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, abdicated his title and released all imperial states and officials from their oaths and obligations to the empire. Since the Middle Ages, the Holy Roman Empire had been recognized by Western Europeans as the legitimate continuation of the ancient Roman Empire due to its emperors having been proclaimed as Roman emperors by the papacy. Through
The defining characteristic of the Holy Roman Empire was the idea that the Holy Roman Emperor represented the leading monarch in Europe and that their empire was the one true continuation of the Roman Empire of Antiquity, through proclamation by the popes in Rome. It was the firm
By the 18th century, the contemporary views of the Holy Roman Empire were far from universally positive. There was a widespread idea that the empire was "sick" in some capacity, for instance the bookseller and publisher Johann Heinrich Zedler mentions the "state illnesses of the
Although the forces of the French First Republic overran and occupied the Netherlands in 1792, the Holy Roman Empire was defending itself quite well until Prussia abandoned the war effort to focus its attention on its Polish territories, taking the resources and military strength
The head of the French republic, Napoleon, assumed the title "Emperor of the French" in 1804. Among others, one of the important figures attending the coronation was Pope Pius VII, probably fearing that Napoleon planned to conquer the Papal States. Pius VII was aware that Napoleo
Francis II proclaimed himself as Emperor of Austria on 11 August 1804, in addition to already being the Holy Roman Emperor. Cobenzl advised that a separate hereditary Austrian title would also allow the Habsburg to maintain parity with other rulers and ensure elections to the pos
Throughout the first half of 1806, Bavaria, Baden and Württemberg attempted to steer an independent course between the demands of the empire and Napoleon. In April 1806, Napoleon sought a treaty whereby the three states would ally themselves to France in perpetuity while forswearing participation in future Reichskriege and submitting to a commission de méditation under his presidency to resolve their disputes. Despite all of this, they were to remain members of the empire. Württemberg ...
In the face of Napoleon's assumption of the title "Emperor of the French" in 1804 and the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805, the Habsburg Monarchy began contemplating whether the imperial title and the empire as a whole were worth defending. Many of the states nominally serving the Holy Roman Emperor, such as Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria, had openly defied imperial authority and sided with Napoleon. Even then, the significance of the empire was not based on actual control of
The Holy Roman Empire, an institution which had lasted for just over a thousand years, did not pass unnoticed or unlamented. The dissolution of the empire sent shockwaves through Germany, with most of the reactions within the former imperial boundaries being rage, grief or shame.
The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was constituted by Francis II's own personal abdication of the title and the release of all vassals and imperial states from their obligations and duties to the emperor. The title of Holy Roman Emperor and the Holy Roman Empire itself as a
In the Austrian Empire, the Habsburg dynasty continued to act as a substitute for nationality, though the Austrian imperial title was not associated with any nationality in particular. Though the German vassals of the Holy Roman Empire had been released from their obligations, Fr
- 6 August 1806; 214 years ago
- Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; succeeded chiefly by the Confederation of the Rhine and then the German Confederation, The House of Habsburg-Lorraine continues to rule as Emperors of Austria and Kings of Hungary, The German Question, concerning the possibility of German unification; eventually resulting in the formation of the German Empire
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The empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806, when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) abdicated, following a military defeat by the French under Napoleon at Austerlitz (see Treaty of Pressburg).
- Early life
Francis I was the Duke of Lorraine and Bar, and later Grand Duke of Tuscany, who married Maria Theresa of Austria and became Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria. His wife effectively ruled Austria and the Holy Roman Empire. They were the founders of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. The oldest surviving son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine, Francis left the duchy for the deposed Polish king Stanisław Leszczyński in exchange for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as one of the terms ending the War...
Francis was born in Nancy, Lorraine, the oldest surviving son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine, and his wife Princess Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans. He was connected with the Habsburgs through his grandmother Eleonore, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand III. He was very close to his brother Charles and sister Anne Charlotte. Emperor Charles VI favoured the family, who, besides being his cousins, had served the house of Austria with distinction. He had designed to marry his daughter Maria Theresa ...
They married on 12 February in the Augustinian Church, Vienna. The wedding was held on 14 February 1736. The treaty between the Emperor and Francis was signed on 4 May 1736. On 5 January 1737, instruments of cession were signed at Pontremoli between Spain and the Empire, with Spain ceding Parma, Piacenza and Tuscany to the Holy Roman Empire and the Empire recognizing Don Carlos of Spain as King of Naples and Sicily. On 10 January, the Spanish troops began their withdrawal from Tuscany, and were
In the Treaty of Füssen, Maria Theresa secured his election as Emperor, which took place on 13 September 1745. He succeeded Charles VII, and she made him co-regent of her hereditary dominions. Francis was well content to leave the wielding of power to his able wife. He had a natural fund of good sense and brilliant business capacity and was a useful assistant to Maria Theresa in the laborious task of governing the complicated Austrian dominions, but he was not active in politics or ...
Francis II (German : Franz II.; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor from 1792 to 1806 and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria from 1804 to 1835. He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French.
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 00:01:53 1 Early life 00:04:17 2 Emperor 00:07:37 3 Domestic policy 00:10:2...
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