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  1. French Braille - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Braille

    French Braille is the original braille alphabet, and the basis of all others. The alphabetic order of French has become the basis of the international braille convention, used by most braille alphabets around the world.

    • Punctuation

      Punctuation is as follows:. /,;: ÷ ? subscript ! + " = - −...

  2. Braille - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braille

    When Braille was first adapted to languages other than French, many schemes were adopted, including mapping the native alphabet to the alphabetical order of French – e.g. in English W, which was not in the French alphabet at the time, is mapped to braille X, X to Y, Y to Z, and Z to the first French-accented letter – or completely ...

  3. Louis Braille - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Braille

    Louis Braille (/ b r eɪ l / ; French: ; 4 January 1809 – 6 January 1852) was a French educator and inventor of a system of reading and writing for use by the blind or visually impaired. His system remains virtually unchanged to this day, and is known worldwide simply as braille .

    • 6 January 1852 (aged 43), Paris, France
    • 4 January 1809, Coupvray, France
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    • Letters
    • Punctuation
    • Formatting and Mode
    • Numbers
    • History
    • Similar Alphabets
    • References

    In nu­mer­i­cal order by decade, the let­ters are: For the pur­poses of ac­com­mo­dat­ing a for­eign al­pha­bet, ö is con­sid­ered equiv­a­lent to œ, and the let­ters ì, ä, òmay be added: Un­like Eng­lish and Ger­man Braille, French Braille only uses the ab­bre­vi­a­tions and con­trac­tions pre­sent in the printed or­thog­ra­phy.

    Punc­tu­a­tion is as fol­lows: The lower val­ues are read­ings within num­bers (after the An­toine num­ber marker: see below).

    For­mat­ting and mode-chang­ing marks are: As in Eng­lish Braille, the cap­i­tal sign is dou­bled for all caps. ⟨⠢⟩ and ⟨⠔⟩ are used to begin and end em­pha­sis within a word. The sym­bol marker com­bines with a fol­low­ing ini­tial let­ter to pro­duce the fol­low­ing: 1. ⠐⠏ §, ⠐⠿ &, ⠐⠉ ©, ⠐⠗ ®, ⠐⠞ ™, ⠐⠬ % (⠐⠬⠬ ‰, ⠐⠬⠬⠬ ‱) The cur­rency marker com­bines with a fol­low­ing ini­tial for: 1. ⠘⠽ ¥, ⠘⠑ €, ⠘⠎ $, ⠘⠇ £ It is also used in comic strips: 1. ⠘⠻ (speech bubble), ⠘⠳(thought bubble)

    The tra­di­tional sys­tem of dig­its is to add the num­ber sign ⠼ in front of the let­ters of the first decade (a–j), with ⠼⠁ being ⟨1⟩ and ⠼⠚ being ⟨0⟩. This is the in­ter­na­tion­ally rec­og­nized num­ber sys­tem. How­ever, in French Braille a new sys­tem, the An­toine braille dig­its, is used for math­e­mat­ics and is rec­om­mended for all aca­d­e­mic pub­li­ca­tions. This uses ⠠ com­bined with the first nine let­ters of the fourth decade, from ⠠⠡ for ⟨1⟩ to ⠠⠪ for ⟨9⟩, with the pre­ced­ing ⠠⠼ for ⟨0⟩. The pe­riod/dec­i­mal and frac­tion bar also change. The An­toine num­bers are being pro­moted in France and Lux­em­bourg, but are not much used in with French Braille in Que­bec. See the punc­tu­a­tion sec­tion above for An­toine math­e­mat­i­cal no­ta­tion.

    Read­ings have changed slightly since mod­ern braille was first pub­lished in 1837. The great­est change has been var­i­ous sec­ondary read­ings which were added to the al­pha­bet and then aban­doned.

    In gen­eral, only the as­sign­ments of the basic 26 let­ters of the French al­pha­bet are re­tained in other braille al­pha­bets. For ex­am­ple, among the ad­di­tional let­ters, in Ger­man Braille only ü and ö co­in­cide with French Braille. How­ever, there are sev­eral al­pha­bets which are much more closely re­lated. Flem­ish Dutch uses the French Braille al­pha­bet, in con­trast to the Ger­man-de­rived Nether­lands Dutch Braille. Ital­ian Braille is iden­ti­cal to the French apart from dou­bling up French Braille ò to Ital­ian ó and ò, since French has no ó. In­deed, a prin­ci­pal dif­fer­ence of these al­pha­bets is the remap­ping of French vow­els with a grave ac­cent (à è ì ò ù) to an acute ac­cent (á é í ó ú), as the French al­pha­bet does not sup­port acute ac­cents apart from é. Span­ish changes all five of these vow­els, as well as tak­ing ü. Por­tuguese Braille is also very sim­i­lar to the French, though the shift of grave to acute ac­cents ne­ces­si­tated a chain of oth...

  5. Category:French-ordered braille alphabets - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:French-ordered...

    Pages in category "French-ordered braille alphabets" The following 124 pages are in this category, out of 124 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().

  6. The Braille system is a way of writing things. It is named after Louis Braille, the French man who invented it. The system is used by blind people to read and write. The Braille system uses a set of raised bumps or dots that can be felt with a finger. Each set of dots is a character in an alphabet, and the numbers and some punctuation

  7. Braille - Wikipedia

    sco.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braille

    Braille is named efter its creautor, Louis Braille, a Frenchman that lost his sicht as a result o a bairnheid accident. In 1824, at the age o fifteen, he developit a code for the French alphabet as an impruivement on nicht writin .

  8. Braille arranged his characters in decades (groups of ten), and assigned the 25 letters of the French alphabet to them in order. The characters beyond the first 25 are the principal source of variation today.

  9. French language - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_language

    In French Polynesia and to a lesser extent Wallis and Futuna, where oral and written knowledge of the French language has become almost nearly universal (95% and 84% respectively), French increasingly tends to displace the native Polynesian languages as the language most spoken at home.

    • distribution maps below
    • 76.8 million worldwide, An estimated 274 million French speakers (L1 plus L2; 2014)
  10. English Braille - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Braille

    English Braille, also known as Grade 2 Braille, is the braille alphabet used for English. It consists of 250 or so letters , numerals, punctuation, formatting marks, contractions, and abbreviations . Some English Braille letters, such as ⠡ ch , correspond to more than one letter in print.