French Braille is the original braille alphabet, and the basis of all others. The alphabetic order of French has become the basis of the international braille convention, used by most braille alphabets around the world.
When Braille was first adapted to languages other than French, many schemes were adopted, including mapping the native alphabet to the alphabetical order of French – e.g. in English W, which was not in the French alphabet at the time, is mapped to braille X, X to Y, Y to Z, and Z to the first French-accented letter – or completely ...
Louis Braille (/ b r eɪ l / ; French: ; 4 January 1809 – 6 January 1852) was a French educator and inventor of a system of reading and writing for use by the blind or visually impaired. His system remains virtually unchanged to this day, and is known worldwide simply as braille .
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- Formatting and Mode
- Similar Alphabets
In numerical order by decade, the letters are: For the purposes of accommodating a foreign alphabet, ö is considered equivalent to œ, and the letters ì, ä, òmay be added: Unlike English and German Braille, French Braille only uses the abbreviations and contractions present in the printed orthography.
Punctuation is as follows: The lower values are readings within numbers (after the Antoine number marker: see below).
Formatting and mode-changing marks are: As in English Braille, the capital sign is doubled for all caps. ⟨⠢⟩ and ⟨⠔⟩ are used to begin and end emphasis within a word. The symbol marker combines with a following initial letter to produce the following: 1. ⠐⠏ §, ⠐⠿ &, ⠐⠉ ©, ⠐⠗ ®, ⠐⠞ ™, ⠐⠬ % (⠐⠬⠬ ‰, ⠐⠬⠬⠬ ‱) The currency marker combines with a following initial for: 1. ⠘⠽ ¥, ⠘⠑ €, ⠘⠎ $, ⠘⠇ £ It is also used in comic strips: 1. ⠘⠻ (speech bubble), ⠘⠳(thought bubble)
The traditional system of digits is to add the number sign ⠼ in front of the letters of the first decade (a–j), with ⠼⠁ being ⟨1⟩ and ⠼⠚ being ⟨0⟩. This is the internationally recognized number system. However, in French Braille a new system, the Antoine braille digits, is used for mathematics and is recommended for all academic publications. This uses ⠠ combined with the first nine letters of the fourth decade, from ⠠⠡ for ⟨1⟩ to ⠠⠪ for ⟨9⟩, with the preceding ⠠⠼ for ⟨0⟩. The period/decimal and fraction bar also change. The Antoine numbers are being promoted in France and Luxembourg, but are not much used in with French Braille in Quebec. See the punctuation section above for Antoine mathematical notation.
Readings have changed slightly since modern braille was first published in 1837. The greatest change has been various secondary readings which were added to the alphabet and then abandoned.
In general, only the assignments of the basic 26 letters of the French alphabet are retained in other braille alphabets. For example, among the additional letters, in German Braille only ü and ö coincide with French Braille. However, there are several alphabets which are much more closely related. Flemish Dutch uses the French Braille alphabet, in contrast to the German-derived Netherlands Dutch Braille. Italian Braille is identical to the French apart from doubling up French Braille ò to Italian ó and ò, since French has no ó. Indeed, a principal difference of these alphabets is the remapping of French vowels with a grave accent (à è ì ò ù) to an acute accent (á é í ó ú), as the French alphabet does not support acute accents apart from é. Spanish changes all five of these vowels, as well as taking ü. Portuguese Braille is also very similar to the French, though the shift of grave to acute accents necessitated a chain of oth...M. S. Loomis, 1942, The Braille Reference BookPierre Henri, 1952, La vie et l'œvre de Louis Braille,PUF-GIAA, Paris
Pages in category "French-ordered braille alphabets" The following 124 pages are in this category, out of 124 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().
The Braille system is a way of writing things. It is named after Louis Braille, the French man who invented it. The system is used by blind people to read and write. The Braille system uses a set of raised bumps or dots that can be felt with a finger. Each set of dots is a character in an alphabet, and the numbers and some punctuation
Braille is named efter its creautor, Louis Braille, a Frenchman that lost his sicht as a result o a bairnheid accident. In 1824, at the age o fifteen, he developit a code for the French alphabet as an impruivement on nicht writin .
Braille arranged his characters in decades (groups of ten), and assigned the 25 letters of the French alphabet to them in order. The characters beyond the first 25 are the principal source of variation today.
In French Polynesia and to a lesser extent Wallis and Futuna, where oral and written knowledge of the French language has become almost nearly universal (95% and 84% respectively), French increasingly tends to displace the native Polynesian languages as the language most spoken at home.
English Braille, also known as Grade 2 Braille, is the braille alphabet used for English. It consists of 250 or so letters , numerals, punctuation, formatting marks, contractions, and abbreviations . Some English Braille letters, such as ⠡ ch , correspond to more than one letter in print.