In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive (FWD) layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle.
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs commonly use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout (FF).
In automotive design, an F4, or front-engine, four-wheel drive (4WD) layout places the internal combustion engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels. This layout is typically chosen for better control on many surfaces, and is an important part of rally racing, as well as off-road driving.
Mesin depan adalah sebuah tatanan letak mesin dalam sebuah mobil yang berada di bagian depan. Letak mesin yang ada di depan adalah konfigurasi paling populer. Dalam konfigurasi ini mesin diletakan di depan kabin penumpang.
Mid-engine design is also a way to provide additional empty crush space in the front of the automobile between the bumper and the windshield, which can then be designed to absorb more of the impact force in a frontal collision in order to minimize penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.
- Usage Implications
- Historical Arrangements
- Further Reading
In contrast with the front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout (FR), the FF layout eliminates the need for a central tunnel or a higher chassis clearance to accommodate a driveshaft providing power to the rear wheels. Like the rear-engine, rear-wheel drive layout (RR) and rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout (RMR) layouts, it places the engine over the drive wheels, improving traction in many applications. As the steered wheels are also the driven wheels, FF cars are generally considered superior to FR cars in conditions where there is low traction such as snow, mud, gravel or wet tarmac. When hill climbing in low traction conditions RR is considered the best two wheel drive layout, primarily due to the shift of weight to the rear wheels when climbing. The cornering ability of a FF vehicle is generally better, because the engine is placed over the steered wheels. However, as the driven wheels have the additional demands of steering, if a vehicle accelerates quickly,...
Early cars using the FF layout include the 1929 Cord L-29, 1931 DKW F1, the 1948 Citroën 2CV, 1949 Saab 92 and the 1959 Mini. In the 1980s, the traction and packaging advantages of this layout caused many compact and mid-sized vehicles to adopt it. There are four different arrangements for this basic layout, depending on the location of the engine, which is the heaviest component of the drivetrain.
Sedgwick, Michael Cars of the 50s and 60s. Gothenburg, Sweden: A B Nordbok, 1983. (Includes pictures of the engine layouts of the Traction Avant and other designs).
A front engine rear-wheel drive can have good weight distribution (balance front to rear), but has a higher moment of inertia than mid engine layout. The mid-engine layout has none of these disadvantages. It has better weight distribution and a lower moment of inertia.
A transverse engine is an engine mounted in a vehicle so that the engine's crankshaft is at a right angle (90°) to the vehicle. Many modern front wheel drive vehicles use a transverse engine mounting design. The majority of rear wheel drive vehicles use a longitudinal engine design, where the engine's crankshaft axis is parallel to the vehicle.
The Tata Hexa is a mid-size SUV manufactured by Indian passenger and commercial vehicles manufacturer Tata Motors. The SUV, which was originally unveiled in the 2016 Geneva Motor Show, was launched into the Indian markets in January 2017. The Tata Hexa is based on the company's previously used Aria platform, with a body-on-frame chassis.
The Mazda6 was marketed as the first example of the company's "Stylish, Insightful and Spirited" design philosophy, followed by the Mazda2 in December 2002, the RX-8 in August 2003, the Mazda3 in January 2004, the Mazda5 in the summer of 2005, the MX-5 in October 2005, and the CX-7 in November 2006.