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What is a geographical coordinate?

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What are the different types of coordinate systems?

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**geographic coordinate system**is a**coordinate system**associated with positions on Earth. A GCS can give positions: as spherical**coordinate system**using latitude, longitude, and elevation; as map**coordinates**projected onto the plane, possibly including elevation; as earth-centered, earth-fixed**Cartesian coordinates**in 3-space; as a set of numbers, letters or symbols forming a**geocode**. In**geodetic coordinates**and map**coordinates**, the coordinate tuple is decomposed such that one of the numbers rep- History
The invention of a

**geographic coordinate system**is generally... - Geodetic datum
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical"...

- Horizontal coordinates
To establish the position of a

**geographic**location on a map,... - 3D Cartesian coordinates
Every point that is expressed in ellipsoidal coordinates can...

- History
A geographical coordinate system is a coordinate system. This means that

**every place can be specified by a set of three numbers**,**called coordinates**. A full circle can be divided into 360 degrees (or 360°); this was first done by the Babylonians; Ancient Greeks, like Ptolemy later extended the theory. Today, degrees are divided further.In geometry, a coordinate system is a

**system that uses one or more numbers**, or**coordinates**, to**uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space**. The order of the coordinates is significant, and they are sometimes identified by their position in an ordered tuple and sometimes by a letter, as in "the x-coordinate". The coordinates are taken to be real numbers in elementary mathematics, but may be complex numbers or elements of a more aFrom

**Wikipedia**, the**free encyclopedia Wikimedia Commons**has media related to Geographic coordinate system. For more information, see Geographic coordinate system.- History
- Geographic Latitude and Longitude
- Measuring Height Using Datums
- Map Projection
- Cartesian Coordinates
- Expressing Latitude and Longitude as Linear Units
- Geostationary Coordinates
- on Other Celestial Bodies
- See Also
- References

The invention of a geographic coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century later, Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, and measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor. Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsum...

The "latitude" (abbreviation: Lat., φ, or phi) of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through (or close to) the center of the Earth.[n 3] Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator and to each other. The north pole is 90° N; the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the fundamental plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The "longitude" (abbreviation: Long., λ, or lambda) of a point on Earth's surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses (often called great circles), which converge at the north and south poles. The meridian of th...

Complexity of the problem

To completely specify a location of a topographical feature on, in, or above Earth, one also has to specify the vertical distance from Earth's center or surface. Earth is not a sphere, but an irregular shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0.3% larger than the radius measured through the poles. The shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotatio...

Common baselines

Common height baselines include 1. The surface of the datum ellipsoid, resulting in an ellipsoidal height 2. The mean sea level as described by the gravity geoid, yielding the orthometric height 3. A vertical datum, yielding a dynamic heightrelative to a known reference height. Along with the latitude ϕ{\\displaystyle \\phi } and longitude λ{\\displaystyle \\lambda }, the height h{\\displaystyle h} provides the three-dimensional geodetic coordinates or geographic coordinatesfor a loca...

Datums

In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "surface" above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They then choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent t...

To establish the position of a geographic location on a map, a map projection is used to convert geodetic coordinates to two-dimensional coordinates on a map; it projects the datum ellipsoidal coordinates and height onto a flat surface of a map. The datum, along with a map projection applied to a grid of reference locations, establishes a grid system for plotting locations. Common map projections in current use include the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS), the United States National Grid (USNG), the Global Area Reference System (GARS) and the World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF).Coordinates on a map are usually in terms northing N and eastingE offsets relative to a specified origin. Map projection formulas depend in the geometry of the projection as well as parameters dependent on the particular location at which the map is projected. T...

Every point that is expressed in ellipsoidal coordinates can be expressed as an rectilinear x y z (Cartesian) coordinate. Cartesian coordinates simplify many mathematical calculations. The Cartesian systems of different datums are not equivalent.

On the GRS80 or WGS84 spheroid at sea level at the equator, one latitudinal second measures 30.715 metres, one latitudinal minute is 1843 metres and one latitudinal degree is 110.6 kilometres. The circles of longitude, meridians, meet at the geographical poles, with the west-east width of a second naturally decreasing as latitude increases. On the equator at sea level, one longitudinal second measures 30.92 metres, a longitudinal minute is 1855 metres and a longitudinal degree is 111.3 kilometres. At 30° a longitudinal second is 26.76 metres, at Greenwich (51°28′38″N) 19.22 metres, and at 60° it is 15.42 metres. On the WGS84 spheroid, the length in meters of a degree of latitude at latitude φ (that is, the distance along a north–south line from latitude (φ − 0.5) degrees to (φ + 0.5) degrees) is about 1. 111132.92−559.82cos2φ+1.175cos4φ−0.0023cos6φ{\\displaystyle 111132.92-559.82\\,\\cos 2\\varphi +1.175\\,...

Geostationary satellites (e.g., television satellites) are over the equator at a specific point on Earth, so their position related to Earth is expressed in longitude degrees only. Their latitudeis always zero (or approximately so), that is, over the equator.

Similar coordinate systems are defined for other celestial bodies such as: 1. A similarly well-defined system based on the reference ellipsoid for Mars. 2. Selenographic coordinates for the Moon

Portions of this article are from Jason Harris' "Astroinfo" which is distributed with KStars, a desktop planetarium for Linux/KDE. See The KDE Education Project - KStars

A geographic coordinate system is a

**coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers**,**letters or symbols**. [note 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector.The circles parallel tae the equator is lines o constant latitude, or parallels. The graticule determines the latitude an longitude o poseetion on the surface. A geographic coordinate seestem is a

**coordinate seestem that enables ilka location on the Yird tae be specified bi a set o nummers or letters**. The coordinates are aften chosen sae that ane o the nummers represents vertical poseetion, an twa or three o the nummers represent horizontal poseetion.From

**Wikipedia**, the free encyclopedia In**geodesy**,**conversion**among different**geographic coordinate systems**is made necessary by the different**geographic coordinate systems**in use across the world and over time.A spatial reference

**system**(SRS) or**coordinate**reference**system**(CRS) is a**coordinate**-based local, regional or global**system**used to locate geographical entities. A spatial reference**system**defines a specific map projection, as well as transformations between different spatial reference systems.Sistemul de coordonate geografice este un sistem de referință care utilizează coordonatele unghiulare, latitudine (nordică sau sudică) și longitudine (estică și vestică) și servește la determinarea unghiurilor laterale ale suprafeței terestre (sau mai general ale unui sferoid).