The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich), later referred to as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans (Latin: Imperator Romanorum) during the middle ages, and also known as the German-Roman Emperor since the early modern period (German: Römisch-deutscher Kaiser, lit. 'Roman-German emperor'), was the supreme head of state and ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Holy Roman Empire should not be mistaken for the Roman Empire.. The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich), occasionally but unofficially referred to as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, was a group of regions and free cities in central Europe which all came under the rule of an emperor who was elected by the princes and magistrates ...
- Wars with France and Napoleon
- Formation of the Confederation of the Rhine
- Abdication of Francis II
The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire occurred de facto on 6 August 1806, when the last Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, abdicated his title and released all imperial states and officials from their oaths and obligations to the empire. Since the Middle Ages, the Holy Roman Empire had been recognized by Western Europeans as the legitimate continuation of the ancient Roman Empire due to its emperors having been proclaimed as Roman emperors by the papacy. Through
The defining characteristic of the Holy Roman Empire was the idea that the Holy Roman Emperor represented the leading monarch in Europe and that their empire was the one true continuation of the Roman Empire of Antiquity, through proclamation by the popes in Rome. It was the firm
By the 18th century, the contemporary views of the Holy Roman Empire were far from universally positive. There was a widespread idea that the empire was "sick" in some capacity, for instance the bookseller and publisher Johann Heinrich Zedler mentions the "state illnesses of the
Although the forces of the French First Republic overran and occupied the Netherlands in 1792, the Holy Roman Empire was defending itself quite well until Prussia abandoned the war effort to focus its attention on its Polish territories, taking the resources and military strength
The head of the French republic, Napoleon, assumed the title "Emperor of the French" in 1804. Among others, one of the important figures attending the coronation was Pope Pius VII, probably fearing that Napoleon planned to conquer the Papal States. Pius VII was aware that Napoleo
Francis II proclaimed himself as Emperor of Austria on 11 August 1804, in addition to already being the Holy Roman Emperor. Cobenzl advised that a separate hereditary Austrian title would also allow the Habsburg to maintain parity with other rulers and ensure elections to the pos
Throughout the first half of 1806, Bavaria, Baden and Württemberg attempted to steer an independent course between the demands of the empire and Napoleon. In April 1806, Napoleon sought a treaty whereby the three states would ally themselves to France in perpetuity while forswearing participation in future Reichskriege and submitting to a commission de méditation under his presidency to resolve their disputes. Despite all of this, they were to remain members of the empire. Württemberg ...
In the face of Napoleon's assumption of the title "Emperor of the French" in 1804 and the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805, the Habsburg Monarchy began contemplating whether the imperial title and the empire as a whole were worth defending. Many of the states nominally serving the Holy Roman Emperor, such as Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria, had openly defied imperial authority and sided with Napoleon. Even then, the significance of the empire was not based on actual control of
The Holy Roman Empire, an institution which had lasted for just over a thousand years, did not pass unnoticed or unlamented. The dissolution of the empire sent shockwaves through Germany, with most of the reactions within the former imperial boundaries being rage, grief or shame.
The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was constituted by Francis II's own personal abdication of the title and the release of all vassals and imperial states from their obligations and duties to the emperor. The title of Holy Roman Emperor and the Holy Roman Empire itself as a
In the Austrian Empire, the Habsburg dynasty continued to act as a substitute for nationality, though the Austrian imperial title was not associated with any nationality in particular. Though the German vassals of the Holy Roman Empire had been released from their obligations, Fr
- 6 August 1806; 214 years ago
- Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; succeeded chiefly by the Confederation of the Rhine and then the German Confederation, The House of Habsburg-Lorraine continues to rule as Emperors of Austria and Kings of Hungary, The German Question, concerning the possibility of German unification; eventually resulting in the formation of the German Empire
- Notes column
- Grouped lists
This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordships, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs. The Holy Roman Empire was a complex political entity that existed in central Europe for most of the medieval and early modern periods and was generally ruled by a German-speaking Emperor. The states that composed the Empire, while enjoying a unique form of territo
The "Notes" column shows, in capsule form, 1. the territorial development of the different states or polities; 2. the royal or noble dynasties, including their various branches, which ruled over territories or polities; 3. the transmission of succession rights; 4. the attributes of "statehood"; and 5. the size of territory and population of the various polities whenever these are available.
The following lists are going to be included into the table above.
Prince of the Holy Roman Empire (Latin: princeps imperii, German: Reichsfürst, cf. Fürst) was a title attributed to a hereditary ruler, nobleman or prelate recognised as such by the Holy Roman Emperor.
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The Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire (German: Reichskrone) was the hoop crown (German: Bügelkrone) of the Holy Roman Emperor from the 11th century to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. The crown was used in the coronation of the King of the Romans, the title assumed by the Emperor-elect immediately after his election. It ...
Holy Roman Emperor was the title that was given to the ruler of a loose group of places in mostly Central Europe called the Holy Roman Empire.The title of "emperor" was passed from the Romans to the Frankish kingdom (for which "France" is named) when, on 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, king of the Franks, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Army of the Holy Roman Empire (German: Reichsarmee, Reichsheer or Reichsarmatur; Latin: exercitus imperii) was created in 1422 and came to an end when the Holy Roman Empire dissolved in 1806 as the result of the Napoleonic Wars. It must not be confused with the Imperial Army (Kaiserliche Armee) of the Emperor.
The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia, German: Königreich Italien), also called Imperial Italy (German: Reichsitalien), was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.