Charles was born on 17 August 1887, in the Castle of Persenbeug, in Lower Austria.His parents were Archduke Otto Franz of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony.At the time, his great-uncle Franz Joseph reigned as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.
- Early Life
- Heir Presumptive
- Proclamation of 11 November
- Attempts to Reclaim Throne of Hungary
- Exile in Madeira and Death
Charles was born on 17 August 1887 in the Castle of Persenbeug in Lower Austria. His parents were Archduke Otto Franz of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony. At the time, his granduncle Franz Joseph reigned as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, and his uncle Franz Ferdinandbecame heir presumptive two years later. As a child, Charles was reared a devout Roman Catholic. He spent his early years wherever his father's regiment happened to be stationed; later on he lived in Vienna and Reichenau. He was privately educated, but, contrary to the custom ruling in the imperial family, he attended a public gymnasium for the sake of demonstrations in scientific subjects. On the conclusion of his studies at the gymnasium, he entered the army, spending the years from 1906-1908 as an officer chiefly in Prague, where he studied law and political science concurrently with his military duties. In 1907 he was declared of age and Prince Zdenko Lobkowitz was appointed his chamberlain. In t...
In 1911, Charles married Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma. They had met as children but did not see one another for almost ten years, as each pursued their education. In 1909, his Dragoon regiment was stationed at Brandeis an der Elbe (Brandýs nad Labem), from where he visited his aunt at Franzensbad.:5 It was during one of these visits that Charles and Zita became reacquainted.:5 Due to Franz Ferdinand's morganatic marriage, his children were excluded from the succession. As a result, the Emperor severely pressured Charles to marry. Zita not only shared Charles' devout Catholicism, but also an impeccably royal lineage.:16Zita later recalled,
Charles became heir presumptive after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914, the event which precipitated World War I. Only at this time did the old Emperor, moved by an innate sense of duty, take steps to initiate the heir-presumptive to his crown in affairs of state. But the outbreak of World War I interfered with this political education. Charles spent his time during the first phase of the war at headquarters at Teschen, but exercised no military influence. Charles then became a Generalfeldmarschall in the Austro-Hungarian Army. In the spring of 1916, in connection with the offensive against Italy, he was entrusted with the command of the XX. Corps, whose affections the heir-presumptive to the throne won by his affability and friendliness. The offensive, after a successful start, soon came to a standstill. Shortly afterwards, Charles went to the eastern front as commander of an army operating against the Russians and Romanians.
Charles succeeded to the thrones in November 1916, after the death of Emperor Franz Joseph. On 2 December 1916, he took over the title of Supreme Commander of the whole army from Archduke Frederick. His coronation occurred on 30 December. In 1917, Charles secretly entered into peace negotiations with France. He employed his brother-in-law, Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma, an officer in the Belgian Army, as intermediary. Although his foreign minister, Ottokar Czernin, was only interested in negotiating a general peace which would include Germany, Charles himself went much further in suggesting his willingness to make a separate peace. When news of the overture leaked in April 1918, Charles denied involvement until French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceaupublished letters signed by him. This led to Czernin's resignation, forcing Austria-Hungary into an even more dependent position with respect to its seemingly wronged German ally. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was wracked by inner turmoi...
On 11 November 1918—the same day as the armistice ending the war between allies and Germany—Charles issued a carefully worded proclamation in which he recognized the Austrian people's right to determine the form of the state and "relinquish(ed) every participation in the administration of the State." He also released his officials from their oath of loyalty to him. On the same day the Imperial Family left Schönbrunn and moved to Castle Eckartsau, east of Vienna. On 13 November, following a visit of Hungarian magnates, Charles issued a similar proclamation for Hungary. Although it has widely been cited as an "abdication", that word was never mentioned in either proclamation. Indeed, he deliberately avoided using the word abdicationin the hope that the people of either Austria or Hungary would vote to recall him. Privately, Charles left no doubt that he believed himself to be the rightful emperor. Addressing Cardinal Friedrich Gustav Piffl, he wrote: Instead, on 12 November, the day a...
Encouraged by Hungarian royalists ("legitimists"), Charles sought twice in 1921 to reclaim the throne of Hungary, but failed largely because Hungary's regent, Miklós Horthy (the last admiral of the Austro-Hungarian Navy), refused to support him. Horthy's failure to support Charles' restoration attempts is often described as "treasonous" by royalists. Critics suggest that Horthy's actions were more firmly grounded in political reality than those of Charles and his supporters. Indeed, the neighbouring countries had threatened to invade Hungary if Charles tried to regain the throne. Later in 1921, the Hungarian parliament formally nullified the Pragmatic Sanction—an act that effectively dethroned the Habsburgs.
After the second failed attempt at restoration in Hungary, Charles and pregnant Zita were briefly quarantined at Tihany Abbey. On 1 November 1921 they were taken to the Danube harbor city of Baja, made to board the British monitor HMS Glowworm, and were removed to the Black Sea where they were transferred to the light cruiser HMS Cardiff.They arrived in their final exile, the Portuguese island of Madeira, on 19 November 1921. Determined to prevent a third restoration attempt, the Council of Allied Powers had agreed on Madeira because it was isolated in the Atlantic and easily guarded. Originally the couple and their children (who joined them only on 2 February 1922) lived at Funchal at the Villa Vittoria, next to Reid's Hotel, and later moved to Quinta do Monte. Compared to the imperial glory in Vienna and even at Eckartsau, conditions there were certainly impoverished. Charles would not leave Madeira again. On 9 March 1922 he caught a cold walking into town and developed bronchitis...
Historians have been mixed in their evaluations of Charles and his reign. One of the most critical has been Helmut Rumpler, head of the Habsburg commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, who has described Charles as "a dilettante, far too weak for the challenges facing him, out of his depth, and not really a politician." However, others have seen Charles as a brave and honourable figure who tried as Emperor-King to halt World War I. The English writer, Herbert Vivian, wrote:
Catholic Church leaders have praised Charles for putting his Christian faith first in making political decisions, and for his role as a peacemaker during the war, especially after 1917. They have considered that his brief rule expressed Roman Catholic social teaching, and that he created a social legal framework that in part still survives. Pope John Paul II declared Charles "Blessed" in a beatification ceremony held on 3 October 2004,and stated: From the beginning, the Emperor Charles conceived of his office as a holy service to his people. His chief concern was to follow the Christian vocation to holiness also in his political actions. For this reason, his thoughts turned to social assistance. The cause or campaign for his canonization began in 1949, when testimony of his holiness was collected in the Archdiocese of Vienna. In 1954, the cause was opened and he was declared "servant of God", the first step in the process. The League of Prayers established for the promotion of his c...
"Now, we must help each other to get to Heaven."Addressing Empress Zita on 22 October 1911, the day after their wedding.
- Francis Joseph I
- Zita of Bourbon-Parma
- Roman Catholic
- Title abolished
Charles became heir presumptive after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914, the event which precipitated World War I. Only at this time did the old Emperor take steps to initiate the heir-presumptive to his crown in affairs of state. But the outbreak of World War I interfered with this political education.
I utilized the book search as well: 34 for Charles I of Austria vs 3 for Karl I of Austria and 45 for Emperor Charles of Austria vs 24 for Emperor Karl of Austria. Charles 02:36, 18 April 2006 (UTC) A lot of the Google Scholar results are from articles more than 50 years old.
Charles and Ferdinand shared Austria. With an enormous sum in silver and gold arriving from the Spanish colonies, Philip set out on an ambitious campaign to expand and defend his empire. He defeated the Ottoman navy at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, and mounted assaults on the lairs of Mediterranean corsairs in North Africa.
Apr 17, 2020 · The epidemic was known as St. Charles Plague because of the heroic response of the Cardinal Archbishop of Milan, St. Charles Borromeo. Stay in Place or the Salvation of Souls On August 11, 1576 the plague broke out in the northern quarter of Milan as festivities were being planned for the arrival of the famed Don Juan of Austria.
Max Verstappen vs Charles Leclerc and the amazing Austrian GP ... Max Verstappen overtakes Charles Leclerc to take the lead in Austria as the two bang wheels inside of Turn Three.
Austria Grand Prix: Max Verstappen and Charles Leclerc refuse to take the knee ahead of race. By Alex Batt; 13:55 05/07/20 BST; share on Facebook; share on Twitter; share on WhatsApp; share on ...
SPIELBERG, AUSTRIA - JULY 05: Race winner Valtteri Bottas of Finland and Mercedes GP, second placed Charles Leclerc of Monaco and Ferrari and third placed Lando Norris of Great Britain and McLaren F1 pose with an End Racism shirt during the Formula One Grand Prix of Austria at Red Bull Ring on July 05, 2020 in Spielberg, Austria.
Jun 16, 2020 · Maria Theresa’s father was the last remaining male heir to the Habsburg throne, so before she was born, fearing that he might not produce a son, Charles VI reformed the Salic Law, which ...