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  1. James II of England - Wikipedia › wiki › James_II_of_England

    James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S. – 16 September 1701) was King of England and Ireland as James II, and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Catholic monarch of England, Scotland, and Ireland; his reign is now remembered primarily for struggles over ...

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  2. James II of England - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ... › wiki › James_II_of_England

    James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) was king of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1685 to 1688. He was King James II in England and Ireland, and King James VII in Scotland. He was also Duke of Normandy from 31 December 1660. He lost his kingdoms in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

  3. Category:James II of England - Wikipedia › wiki › Category:James_II_of_England

    Pages in category "James II of England" The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().

  4. James II of England — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › James_II_of_England
    • Early Life
    • Restoration
    • Reign
    • Glorious Revolution
    • Later Years
    • Succession
    • Historiography
    • Titles, Styles, Honours, and Arms
    • Further Reading


    James, the sec­ond sur­viv­ing son of King Charles I and his wife, Hen­ri­etta Maria of France, was born at St James's Palace in Lon­don on 14 Oc­to­ber 1633. Later that same year, he was bap­tised by William Laud, the An­gli­can Arch­bishop of Can­ter­bury. He was ed­u­cated by pri­vate tu­tors, along with his older brother, the fu­ture King Charles II, and the two sons of the Duke of Buck­ing­ham, George and Fran­cis Villiers. At the age of three, James was ap­pointed Lord High Ad­mi­ral; t...

    Civil War

    The King's dis­putes with the Eng­lish Par­lia­ment grew into the Eng­lish Civil War. James ac­com­pa­nied his fa­ther at the Bat­tle of Edge­hill, where he nar­rowly es­caped cap­ture by the Par­lia­men­tary army. He sub­se­quently stayed in Ox­ford, the chief Roy­al­ist strong­hold, where he was made a Mas­ter of Arts by the Uni­ver­sity on 1 No­vem­ber 1642 and served as colonel of a vol­un­teer reg­i­ment of foot. When the city sur­ren­dered after the siege of Ox­ford in 1646, Par­lia­men...

    Exile in France

    Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serv­ing in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, and later against their Span­ish allies. In the French army James had his first true ex­pe­ri­ence of bat­tle where, ac­cord­ing to one ob­server, he "ven­tures him­self and char­geth gal­lantly where any­thing is to be done".Turenne's favour led to James being given com­mand of a cap­tured Irish reg­i­ment in De­cem­ber 1652, and being ap­pointed Lieu­tenant-Gen­eral in 1654. In the...

    First marriage

    After Richard Cromwell's res­ig­na­tion as Lord Pro­tec­tor in 1659 and the sub­se­quent col­lapse of the Com­mon­wealth in 1660, Charles II was re­stored to the Eng­lish throne. Al­though James was the heir pre­sump­tive, it seemed un­likely that he would in­herit the Crown, as Charles was still a young man ca­pa­ble of fa­ther­ing children. On 31 De­cem­ber 1660, fol­low­ing his brother's restora­tion, James was cre­ated Duke of Al­bany in Scot­land, to go along with his Eng­lish title, Duk...

    Military and political offices

    After the Restora­tion, James was con­firmed as Lord High Ad­mi­ral, an of­fice that car­ried with it the sub­sidiary ap­point­ments of Gov­er­nor of Portsmouth and Lord War­den of the Cinque Ports. Charles II also made his brother the Gov­er­nor of the Royal Ad­ven­tur­ers into Africa (later short­ened to the Royal African Com­pany) in Oc­to­ber 1660; James re­tained the of­fice until after the Glo­ri­ous Rev­o­lu­tion when he was forced to re­sign. When James com­manded the Royal Navy dur­i...

    Conversion to Roman Catholicism and second marriage

    James's time in France had ex­posed him to the be­liefs and cer­e­monies of the Roman Catholic Church; he and his wife, Anne, be­came drawn to that faith. James took Catholic Eu­charist in 1668 or 1669, al­though his con­ver­sion was kept se­cret for al­most a decade as he con­tin­ued to at­tend An­gli­can ser­vices until 1676. In spite of his con­ver­sion, James con­tin­ued to as­so­ci­ate pri­mar­ily with An­gli­cans, in­clud­ing John Churchill and George Legge, as well as French Protes­tan...

    Accession to the throne

    Charles died in 1685 from apoplexy after con­vert­ing to Catholi­cism on his deathbed. Hav­ing no le­git­i­mate chil­dren, Charles was suc­ceeded by his brother James, who reigned in Eng­land and Ire­land as James II, and in Scot­land as James VII. There was lit­tle ini­tial op­po­si­tion to his ac­ces­sion, and there were wide­spread re­ports of pub­lic re­joic­ing at the or­derly succession. James wanted to pro­ceed quickly to the coro­na­tion, and was crowned with his wife at West­min­ster...

    Two rebellions

    Soon after be­com­ing king, James faced a re­bel­lion in south­ern Eng­land led by his nephew, the Duke of Mon­mouth, and an­other re­bel­lion in Scot­land led by Archibald Camp­bell, the Earl of Ar­gyll. Ar­gyll and Mon­mouth both began their ex­pe­di­tions from Hol­land, where James's nephew and son-in-law, the Prince of Or­ange, had ne­glected to de­tain them or put a stop to their re­cruit­ment efforts. Ar­gyll sailed to Scot­land and, on ar­riv­ing there, raised re­cruits mainly from his...

    Religious liberty and dispensing power

    To pro­tect him­self from fur­ther re­bel­lions, James sought safety by en­larg­ing his stand­ing army. This alarmed his sub­jects, not only be­cause of the trou­ble sol­diers caused in the towns, but be­cause it was against the Eng­lish tra­di­tion to keep a pro­fes­sional army in peacetime. Even more alarm­ing to Par­lia­ment was James's use of his dis­pens­ing power to allow Roman Catholics to com­mand sev­eral reg­i­ments with­out hav­ing to take the oath man­dated by the Test Act. When e...

    In April 1688, James re-is­sued the De­c­la­ra­tion of In­dul­gence, sub­se­quently or­der­ing An­gli­can clergy to read it in their churches. When seven Bish­ops, in­clud­ing the Arch­bishop of Can­ter­bury, sub­mit­ted a pe­ti­tion re­quest­ing the re­con­sid­er­a­tion of the King's re­li­gious poli­cies, they were ar­rested and tried for sedi­tious libel. Pub­lic alarm in­creased when Queen Mary gave birth to a Roman Catholic son and heir, James Fran­cis Ed­ward, on 10 June that year. When James's only pos­si­ble suc­ces­sors were his two Protes­tant daugh­ters, An­gli­cans could see his pro-Catholic poli­cies as a tem­po­rary phe­nom­e­non, but when the prince's birth opened the pos­si­bil­ity of a per­ma­nent Roman Catholic dy­nasty, such men had to re­con­sider their position. Threat­ened by a Roman Catholic dy­nasty, sev­eral in­flu­en­tial Protes­tants claimed the child was sup­posi­ti­tious and had been smug­gled into the Queen's bed­cham­ber in a warm­ing pan.They had al­r...

    War in Ireland

    With the as­sis­tance of French troops, James landed in Ire­land in March 1689. The Irish Par­lia­ment did not fol­low the ex­am­ple of the Eng­lish Par­lia­ment; it de­clared that James re­mained King and passed a mas­sive bill of at­tain­der against those who had re­belled against him. At James's urg­ing, the Irish Par­lia­ment passed an Act for Lib­erty of Con­science that granted re­li­gious free­dom to all Roman Catholics and Protes­tants in Ireland. James worked to build an army in Ire­...

    Return to exile and death

    In France, James was al­lowed to live in the royal château of Saint-Ger­main-en-Laye. James's wife and some of his sup­port­ers fled with him, in­clud­ing the Earl of Melfort; most, but not all, were Roman Catholic. In 1692, James's last child, Louisa Maria Teresa, was born. Some sup­port­ers in Eng­land at­tempted to as­sas­si­nate William III to re­store James to the throne in 1696, but the plot failed and the back­lash made James's cause less popular. Louis XIV's offer to have James electe...

    James's younger daugh­ter Anne suc­ceeded when William died in 1702. The Act of Set­tle­ment pro­vided that, if the line of suc­ces­sion es­tab­lished in the Bill of Rights were ex­tin­guished, the crown would go to a Ger­man cousin, Sophia, Elec­tress of Hanover, and to her Protes­tant heirs. Sophia was a grand­daugh­ter of James VI and I through his el­dest daugh­ter, Eliz­a­beth Stu­art, the sis­ter of Charles I. Thus, when Anne died in 1714 (less than two months after the death of Sophia), she was suc­ceeded by George I, Sophia's son, the Elec­tor of Hanover and Anne's sec­ond cousin. James's son James Fran­cis Ed­ward was recog­nised as king at his fa­ther's death by Louis XIV of France and James's re­main­ing sup­port­ers (later known as Ja­co­bites) as "James III and VIII". He led a ris­ing in Scot­land in 1715 shortly after George I's ac­ces­sion, but was defeated. Ja­co­bites rose again in 1745 led by Charles Ed­ward Stu­art, James II's grand­son, and were again defeated. S...

    His­tor­i­cal analy­sis of James II has been some­what re­vised since Whig his­to­ri­ans, led by Lord Macaulay, cast James as a cruel ab­so­lutist and his reign as "tyranny which ap­proached to insanity". Sub­se­quent schol­ars, such as G. M. Trevelyan (Macaulay's great-nephew) and David Ogg, while more bal­anced than Macaulay, still char­ac­terised James as a tyrant, his at­tempts at re­li­gious tol­er­ance as a fraud, and his reign as an aber­ra­tion in the course of British history. In 1892, A. W. Ward wrote for the Dic­tio­nary of Na­tional Bi­og­ra­phythat James was "ob­vi­ously a po­lit­i­cal and re­li­gious bigot", al­though never de­void of "a vein of pa­tri­otic sen­ti­ment"; "his con­ver­sion to the church of Rome made the eman­ci­pa­tion of his fel­low-catholics in the first in­stance, and the re­cov­ery of Eng­land for catholi­cism in the sec­ond, the gov­ern­ing ob­jects of his policy." Hi­laire Bel­loc, a writer and Catholic apol­o­gist, broke with this tra­di­tion in...

    Titles and styles

    1. 14 October 1633 – 6 February 1685: The Duke of York 2. 10 May 1659 – 6 February 1685: The Earl of Ulster 3. 31 December 1660 – 6 February 1685: The Duke of Albany 4. 6 February 1685 – 23 December 1688 (by Jacobitesuntil 16 September 1701): His Majesty The King The of­fi­cial style of James in Eng­land was "James the Sec­ond, by the Grace of God, King of Eng­land, Scot­land, France and Ire­land, De­fender of the Faith, etc." The claim to France was only nom­i­nal, and was as­serted by every...


    1. KG: Knight of the Garter, 20 April 1642


    Prior to his ac­ces­sion, James's coat of arms was the royal arms (which he later in­her­ited), dif­fer­enced by a label of three points Er­mine. His arms as king were: Quar­terly, I and IV Grandquar­terly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions pas­sant guardant in pale Or (for Eng­land); II Or a lion ram­pant within a dou­ble tres­sure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scot­land); III Azure a harp Or stringed Ar­gent (for Ire­land). 1. Coat of arms of James, Duke of Yo...

    Ashley, Maurice (1978). James II. online free to borrow
    DeKrey, Gary S. (2008). "Between Revolutions: Re-appraising the Restoration in Britain" History Compass6 (3): 738–773.
    Earle, Peter (1972). The Life and Times of James II. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
    Glassey, Lionel, ed. (1997). The Reigns of Charles II and James VII and II.
  5. Talk:James II of England - Wikipedia › wiki › Talk:James_II_of_England

    James II of England is a featured article; it (or a previous version of it) has been identified as one of the best articles produced by the Wikipedia community. Even so, if you can update or improve it, please do so. This article appeared on Wikipedia's Main Page as Today's featured article on May 22, 2006.

  6. Jacobite succession - Wikipedia › wiki › Descendants_of_James_II_of
    • Overview
    • History
    • Pretenders and subsequent heirs

    The Jacobite succession is the line through which Jacobites believed that the crowns of England, Scotland, and Ireland should have descended, applying primogeniture, since the deposition of James II and VII in 1688 and his death in 1701. It is in opposition to the line of succession to the British throne in law since that time. Excluded from the succession by law because of their Roman Catholicism, James's Stuart descendants pursued their claims to the crowns as pretenders. James's son, James Fr

    James II and VII, a Roman Catholic, was deposed, in what became known as the Glorious Revolution, when his Protestant opponents forced him to flee from England in 1688. The English Parliament deemed that James had, by fleeing his realms, abdicated his thrones. In theory, the deem

    James II and VII, his son, James, the 'Old Pretender', and his grandsons, Charles, the 'Young Pretender' and Henry, Cardinal of York, never accepted the loss of their crowns and continued to press their claims from exile to varying degrees. They were supported by Jacobites in Eng

    Applying primogeniture, the notional rights to the Stuarts' claim then passed to Henry's nearest relative, Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia, and from him on to other members of the House of Savoy, and then to the Houses of Austria-Este and Wittelsbach over the subsequent two centu

    English common law determined the line of succession based on male-preference primogeniture, and Scots law applied the same principle in relation to the crown of Scotland. Following the Glorious Revolution, this was altered by a series of English and Scottish statutes, namely the Claim of Right Act 1689, the Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701, but Jacobites did not accept their validity. The tables below set out the male-preference primogeniture line of succession, unaltered by t

  7. Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/James II of England › James_II_of_England

    JAMES II (1633–1701), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, second son of Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria, was born at St. James's Palace 14 (not 15) Oct. 1633. Soon after his christening he was created duke of York and Albany.

  8. James II a VII (14. října 1633 - 16. září 1701) byl anglický král a Irsko a s James II a skotský král jako James VII , od 6. února 1685 byl sesazen v Slavné revoluce z roku 1688.

  9. James II of England wikipedia - Yahoo Search Results › tablet › s › wiki › James_II_of_England Cached 3 days ago · James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S. – 16 September 1701) was King of England and Ireland as James II , and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

  10. James II of England wikipedia - Yahoo Search Results › tablet › s › wiki › James_II_of_England Cached 6 days ago · James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S. – 16 September 1701) was King of England and Ireland as James II , and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

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