Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs.) is a county in the East Midlands of England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south-east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south-west, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north-west, and the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north.
Lincolnshire is a village in Vernon Township, Lake County, in the U.S. state of Illinois. The village is a northern suburb of Chicago. The population of Lincolnshire was 7,275 at the 2010 census. Lincolnshire was incorporated on August 5, 1957, from the unincorporated Half Day area when land was purchased to build a residential subdivision. The ...
- United States
- Stone Age
- Bronze Age
- Iron Age
- Early Middle Ages
Lincolnshire, England derived from the merging of the territory of the ancient Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough Stamford. For some time the entire county was called 'Lindsey', and it is recorded as such in the Domesday Book. Later, Lindsey was applied to only the northern core, around Lincoln; it was defined as one of the three 'Parts of Lincolnshire', along with Holland in the south-east and Kesteven in the south west. In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lind
During the Pleistocene epoch, Britain's climate alternated between long periods of extreme cold and relative warmth; at least the last three cold spells lead to glaciation, during which ice moved southwards across England. Lincolnshire was covered by ice in the Anglian and Wolstonian glacial stages and the eastern parts of the county were glaciated during the Devensian. Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers migrated to Britain at least 800,000 years ago, but evidence of early settlement in the Midlands
Beaker pottery emerged during the late Neolithic and survived into the Bronze Age, which heralded the use of Bronze tools instead of stone. Early beaker remains from around Scunthorpe and in the southern Wolds have been dated to the third millennium BC. Excavations at Risby Warren have revealed a large amount of Bronze Age beaker pottery from the early 2nd millennium BC, while similar material has been identified around Scunthorpe, the southern Wolds and Ancaster. Although Lincolnshire was once
As iron replaced bronze in tool-making in the Iron Age, the distinctive La Tène culture emerged in Celtic societies around 500 BC. Little material from the early stages of La Tène has been uncovered in Lincolnshire. Examples include a bronze brooch from Scunthorpe and a bronze scabbard or sheath with remains of an iron sword found in Wisbech, one of the earliest pieces of decorated La Tène metalwork in the British Isles. A now lost anthropoid-hilted iron dagger in a Bronze sheath with an ...
The Romans established permanent government in Lincolnshire soon after their invasion of AD 43. The tyrannical rule of the Roman sub-prætor Ostorius Scapula so inflamed the Corieltauvi and their neighbours in Yorkshire, the Brigantes, that the two peoples conducted a simmering, low-key rebellion lasting well into AD 70. Eventually, the Governorship of Britain was given to the Deputy of the Prefect of Gaul, and the title Vicar of Britain created. He resided at York. The sub-district of ...
Large numbers of people from Germanic-speaking areas of continental Europe settled in the area starting in the fifth century. Eventually, these became known as Angles, though they most likely did not migrate as part of a coherent tribal group. However, indications of a continuing presence of Britons in the region are stronger than in nearby East Anglia, and the transition from British to Anglo-Saxon control may have been peaceful. It has been suggested that Brittonic was spoken in some communiti
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Lincolnshire (/ ˈ l ɪ ŋ k ən ʃ ər / or / ˈ l ɪ ŋ k ən ʃ ɪər /; abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England.It borders Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, Rutland, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, South Yorkshire, the East Riding of Yorkshire, and (for just 19 metres or 20 yd, England's shortest county boundary) Northamptonshire.
Lincolnshire. Lincolnshire ( / ˈlɪŋkənʃər / or / ˈlɪŋkənʃɪər /; abbreviated Lincs) is an coonty in the east o Ingland. The coonty toun is Lincoln, whare the coonty cooncil haes its heidquairters. The ceremonial coonty o Lincolnshire is componed o the non-metropolitan coonty o Lincolnshire an the aurie covered bi the unitary ...
Stamford is a town and civil parish in the South Kesteven District of Lincolnshire, England. The population at the 2011 census was 19,701 and estimated at 20,645 in 2019. The town has 17th and 18th-century stone buildings, older timber-framed buildings and five medieval parish churches. It is a frequent film location. In 2013 it was rated a top place to live in a survey by The Sunday Times.
The Romans built Ermine Street across what is now Burghley Park and forded the River Welland to the west of Stamford, eventually reaching Lincoln. They also built a town to the north, at Great Casterton on the River Gwash. In AD 61 Boudica followed the Roman legion Legio IX Hispana across the river. The Anglo-Saxons later chose Stamford as their main town, being on a more important river than the Gwash. The place-name Stamford is first attested in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, where it appears as S
Stamford belongs to the parliamentary constituency of Grantham and Stamford. The incumbent is Gareth Davies of the Conservative Party, who won the seat at the 2019 General Election. His predecessor, Nick Boles, had left the Conservatives in March 2019. In local government, prior to 1974, Stamford was a municipal borough based at Stamford Town Hall. Since April 1974 Stamford has come under Lincolnshire County and South Kesteven District Council. It previously belonged to Kesteven County Council.
Stamford is on the bank of the River Wellandand forms a south-westerly protrusion of Lincolnshire between Rutland to the north and west, Peterborough to the south, and Northamptonshire to the south-west. There have been mistaken claims of a quadripoint where four ceremonial counties – Rutland, Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire – would meet at a point but the location actually has two tripoints some 20 metres apart. The River Welland forms the border between two historic ...
Tourism plays an important part in Stamford's economy, as do professional law and accountancy firms. Health, education and other public-service employers also feature, notably a hospital, a large medical general practice, schools and a further education college. Hospitality is provided by several hotels, licensed premises, restaurants, tea rooms and cafés. The licensed premises reflect the history of the town. The George Hotel, Lord Burghley, William Cecil, Danish Invader and Jolly Brewer ...
Stamford was the first conservation area to be designated in England and Wales, under the Civic Amenities Act 1967. There are over 600 listed buildings in and around the town. The Industrial Revolution left Stamford largely untouched. Much of the centre was built in the 17th and 18th centuries in Jacobean or Georgian style. It is marked by streets of timber-framed and stone buildings using local limestone and by little shops tucked down back alleys. Several former coaching inns survive, their la
- St James' Church
- Landmarks and places of interest
Louth is a market town and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. Louth is the principal town and centre for a large rural area of eastern Lincolnshire. Visitor attractions include St James' Church, Hubbard's Hills, the market, many independent retailers, and Lincolnshire's last remaining cattle market.
Louth is at the foot of the Lincolnshire Wolds where they meet the Lincolnshire Marsh. It developed where the ancient trackway along the Wolds, known as the Barton Street, crossed the River Lud. The town is east of a gorge carved into the Wolds that forms the Hubbard's Hills. This area was formed from a glacial overspill channel in the last glacial period. The River Lud meanders through the gorge before entering the town. To the direct south east of Louth is the village of Legbourne, to the nort
Three handaxes have been found on the wolds surrounding Louth, dating from between 424,000 and 191,000 years ago, indicating inhabitation in Paleolithic era. Bronze Age archeological finds include a 'barbed and tanged' arrowhead found in the grounds of Monks' Dyke Tennyson College. St Helen's Spring, at the Gatherums, off Aswell Street, is dedicated to a popular medieval saint, the mother of Constantine the Great, the first Roman Emperor to become a Christian, but is thought to be a Christianise
Louth railway station was a major intermediate station on the East Lincolnshire Railway which ran from Boston to Grimsby from 1848 and was also once served by rail motor services. The station had an extensive good yards which served the malt kilns. Louth was the northern terminus of the Mablethorpe Loop. The line which ran through the nearby villages and seaside towns of Mablethorpe, Sutton-on-Sea, Grimoldby, Saltfleetby, Theddlethorpe, Mumby and Willoughby. The station was the terminus on the L
The town was the origin of the Lincolnshire Rising, which started on 1 October 1536 in St James Church. The rising began after Rev. Thomas Kendall, the incumbent, gave an 'emotive sermon', the evening before the King's Commissioners were due to arrive and assess the church's wealth. Some of the townspeople, fearful that the church treasury would be seized by the men of the Crown, demanded the building's keys. The townspeople kept vigil that night, and, the following day, rang the church bells, '
Much of the town centre is lined with brick buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries. Former ABM Pauls Malt Kiln Louth Town Hall Louth Museum has a Panorama Gallery, which features two back-lit replicas of William Brown's Panorama of Louth viewed from the top of St James' spire in 1844. The two original paintings that together form the panorama hang side-by-side in the Louth Town Council building - the Sessions House - on Eastgate. The panorama gives a unique and vivid representation of the st
Lincoln has a population of about 100,000 people. It is the county town of Lincolnshire, in the East Midlands of England. Lincoln developed from the Roman town of Lindum Colonia. Before then it was an Iron Age settlement. Lincoln's major landmarks are Lincoln Cathedral, a famous example of English Gothic architecture, and Lincoln Castle, an ...
- Arts and Culture
- Local Economy
The name "Boston" is said to be a contraction of "Saint Botolph's town", "stone", or "tun" (Old English, Old Norse and modern Norwegian) for a hamlet or farm, hence the Latin villa Sancti Botulfi"St. Botulf's village").
The town was once held to have been a Roman settlement, but no evidence shows this to be the case. Similarly, it is often linked to the monastery established by the Saxon monk Botolph at "Icanhoe" on the Witham in AD 654 and destroyed by the Vikings in 870, but this is now doubted by modern historians. The early medieval geography of The Fens was much more fluid than it is today, and at that time, the Witham did not flow near the site of Boston. Botolph's establishment is most likely to have...
After the Norman conquest, Ralph the Staller's property was taken over by Count Alan. It subsequently came to be attached to the Earldom of Richmond, North Yorkshire, and known as the Richmond Fee. It lay on the left bank of The Haven. During the 11th and 12th centuries, Boston grew into a notable town and port. In 1204, King John vested sole control over the town in his bailiff. That year or the next, he levied a "fifteenth" tax (quinzieme) of 6.67% on the moveable goods of merchants in the...
17th and 18th centuries
The staple trade made Boston a centre of intellectual influence from the Continent, including the teachings of John Calvin that became known as Calvinism. This, in turn, revolutionised the Christian beliefs and practices of many Bostonians and residents of the neighbouring shires of England. In 1607, a group of pilgrims from Nottinghamshire led by William Brewster and William Bradford attempted to escape pressure to conform with the teaching of the English church by going to the Netherlands f...
The railways came to Boston in 1848 following the building of the East Lincolnshire Railway from Grimsby to Boston and the simultaneous building of the Lincolnshire Loop Line by the Great Northern Railway, which ran between Peterborough and York via Boston, Lincoln, and Doncaster. This line was built before the East Coast Main Line and for a short while put Boston on the map as the GNR's main locomotive works before it was relocated to Doncaster in 1852. Boston railway statio...
Boston residents voted strongly (75.6%) in favour of leaving the European Union in the 2016 UK referendum on EU membership, the highest such vote in the country.
According to the 2001 census, 35,124 people were residing in Boston town, of whom 48.2% were male and 51.8% were female. Children under five accounted for about 5% of the population; 23% of the resident population in Boston were of retirement age. In the 2011 census, the Borough of Boston had a population of 64,600 with 15% of the population having been born outside of the UK and 11% having been born in EU accession countries (2001–2011) such as Poland and Lithuania.The non-White population m...
Boston has historically had strong cultural connections to the Netherlands, and Dutch influence can be found in its architecture.
Boston's most important industries are food production, including vegetables and potatoes; road haulage and logistics companies that carry the food; the Port of Boston, which handles more than one million tons of cargo per year including the import of steel and timber and the export of grain and recyclable materials; shellfishing; other light industry; and tourism. The port is connected by rail, with steel imports going by rail each day to Washwood Heath in Birmingham, and the port and town are also connected by trunk roads including the A16 and the A52. Boston has two weekly newspapers, the Boston Standard and the Boston Target, and a community radio station called Endeavour Radio. Boston's market is held every Wednesday and Saturdayin one of England's largest marketplaces, with an additional market and outside auction held on Wednesdays on Bargate Green. Boston has a theatre and arts centre called Blackfriars,which was formerly the refectory of the Benedictine friary, built in the...
The Princess Royal Arena is located on the Boardsides, just outside Boston. Boston Rugby Clubis based at the Princess Royal Arena. The club was established in 1927 by Ernst Clark, who had an interest in providing activity for boys.
On 22 August 2016, Boston's community radio station Endeavour FM started broadcasting across the Borough. Previously the station had been called Endeavour Online and Stump Radio, set up as a collaboration between Blackfriars Arts Centre and Tulip Radio which first started broadcasting in 2006. The station can be listened to in the Borough of Boston on the frequency 107FM and also online using Radioplayer UK. The Boston Standard (previously Lincolnshire Standard) is a weekly newspaper based in the town, founded in the 19th century. It has been the main newspaper for Boston. The Boston Target is another weekly newspaper based in the town. The paper is owned by Local World, and is Boston Standard's main rival.
In the mid-2000s Boston was shown to have the highest obesity rate of any town in the United Kingdom, with one-third of its adults (31%) considered clinically obese. Obesity has been linked to social deprivation.