Louis IV (German: Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328. Louis IV was Duke of Upper Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his elder brother Rudolf I, served as Margrave of Brandenburg until 1323, as ...
- Early reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria
Louis was born in Munich, the son of Louis II, Duke of Upper...
- Election as German King and conflict with Habsburg
The death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII in August 1313...
- Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor and conflict with the Pope
After the reconciliation with the Habsburgs in 1326, Louis...
- Imperial privileges
Louis IV was a protector of the Teutonic Knights. In 1337 he...
- Early reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria
On 11 July 1346, the prince-electors chose him as King of the Romans (rex Romanorum) in opposition to Emperor Louis IV. Charles was crowned on 26 November 1346 in Bonn. After his opponent died, he was re-elected in 1349 and crowned King of the Romans. In 1355, he was crowned King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor.
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor: 20. Philip II of Spain: 10. Philip III of Spain: 21. Anna of Austria: 5. Maria Anna of Austria: 22. Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria (= 16) 11. Margaret of Austria: 23. Maria Anna of Bavaria (= 17, ≠9) 1. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor: 24. Philip Louis, Count Palatine of Neuburg: 12.
People also ask
Who was the first holy roman empire?
Who was the emperor of Rome in 962?
Who was the captain of louis of rome?
Which countries were part of the holy roman empire?
Apr 07, 2020 · Louis IV de Bavière empereur germanique.jpg 518 × 1,000; 316 KB Louis IV de Bavière palais des papes.jpg 1,200 × 1,600; 615 KB Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg 903 × 1,231; 1.14 MB
- Early Reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria
- Election as German King and Conflict with Habsburg
- Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor and Conflict with The Pope
- Imperial Privileges
- Dynastic Policy
- Conflict with Luxemburg
- Family and Children
- External Links
Though Louis was partly educated in Vienna and became co-regent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the support of his Habsburg mother Matilda and her brother King Albert I, he quarrelled with the Habsburgs from 1307 over possessions in Lower Bavaria. A civil war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich. In the same year Louis defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Handsome. Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose when the guardianship over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria (Henry XIV, Otto IV and Henry XV) was entrusted to Frederick. On 9 November 1313, Frederick was beaten by Louis in the Battle of Gamelsdorf and had to renounce the tutelage.
After the death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII, the Luxemburg party among the prince electors set aside Henry's son, the Bohemian king John of Luxemburg, because of his youth and chose Louis as rival king to Frederick the Fair, a cousin of Louis. Louis was elected in October 1314 upon the instigation of Peter of Aspelt, the Prince-elector and Archbishopof Mainz, with five of the seven votes, to wit Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, the legitimate King-Elector John of Bohemia, Duke John II of Saxe-Lauenburg, rivallingly claiming the Saxon prince-electoral power, Peter of Aspelt, and Prince-Elector Waldemar of Brandenburg. Frederick the Fair received in the same election four of the seven votes, with the deposed King-Elector Henry of Bohemia, illegitimately assuming electoral power, Archbishop-Elector Henry II of Cologne, Louis's brother Prince-Elector Rudolph I of the Electorate of the Palatinate, and Duke Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg, rivallingly claiming the Saxon prince-electo...
After the reconciliation with Habsburg in 1326, Louis marched to Italy and was crowned King of Italy in Milan in 1327. Already in 1323 Louis had sent an army to Italy to protect Milan against the Kingdom of Naples which was together with France the strongest ally of the papacy. But now the Lord of Milan Galeazzo I Visconti was disposed since he was suspected of conspiring with the pope. In January 1328 Louis entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the aged senator Sciarra Colonna, called captain of the Roman people. Three months later Louis published a decree declaring "Jacque de Cahors" (Pope John XXII) deposed on grounds of heresy. He then installed a Spiritual Franciscan, Pietro Rainalducci as Antipope Nicholas V, who was deposed after Louis had left Rome in early 1329. In fulfilment of an oath, on his return from Italy Louis founded Ettal Abbeyon28 April 1330. Philosophers such as Michael of Cesena, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockhamwho advocated a form of church/s...
Louis IV was a protector of the Teutonic Knights. In 1337 he allegedly bestowed upon the Teutonic Order a privilege to conquer Lithuania and Russia, although the Order had only petitioned for three small territories.Later he forbade the Order to stand trial before foreign courts in their territorial conflicts with foreign rulers. Louis concentrated his energies also on the economic development of the cities of the empire, so his name can be found in many city chronicles for the privileges he granted. In 1330 the emperor permitted the Frankfurt Trade Fair and Lübeck as the most powerful member of the Hanseatic League received in 1340 as first city of the empire the coinage prerogative for golden gulden.
In 1323 Louis gave Brandenburg as a fiefdom to his eldest son Louis V. With the Treaty of Pavia the emperor returned the Palatinate to his nephews Rudolf and Rupert in 1329. The duchy of Carinthia was released as an imperial fief on 2 May 1335 in Linz to his Habsburg relatives Albert II, Duke of Austriaand Otto, Duke of Austria. With the death of duke John I in 1340 Louis inherited Lower Bavaria and then reunited the duchy of Bavaria. John's mother, a member of the Luxemburg dynasty, had to return to Bohemia. In 1342 Louis also acquired Tyrol for the Wittelsbach by voiding the first marriage of Margarete Maultasch with John Henry of Bohemia and marrying her to his own son Louis V, thus alienating the house of Luxemburg even more. In 1345 the emperor further antagonized the lay princes by conferring Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland upon his wife Margaret of Holland. The hereditary titles of Magaret's sisters, one of them was the queen of England, were ignored. Due to the dange...
The acquisition of these territories and his restless foreign policy had earned Louis many enemies among the German princes. In the summer of 1346 the Luxemburg Charles IV was elected rival king, with the support of Pope Clement VI. Louis himself obtained much support from the Imperial Free Cities and the knighthood and successfully resisted Charles, who was widely regarded as a papal puppet ("rex clericorum" as William of Ockhamcalled him). Also the Habsburg dukes stayed loyal to Louis. In the Battle of Crécy. Charles' father John of Luxemburg was killed; Charles himself also took part in the battle but escaped. Louis' sudden death in October 1347 avoided a longer civil war. The sons of Louis supported Günther von Schwarzburg as new rival king to Charles but finally joined the Luxemburg party after Günther's early death in 1349 and divided the Wittelsbach possessions among each other again. In continuance of the conflict of the House of Wittelsbach with the House of Luxemburg, the...
In 1308 he married firstly to Beatrix of Świdnica. Their children were: 1. Mathilde (aft. 21 June 1313 – 2 July 1346, Meißen), married at Nürnberg 1 July 1329 Friedrich II, Markgraf of Meißen (d. 1349) 2. a child (b. September 1314) 3. Anna (c. 1316 – 29 January 1319, Kastl) 4. Louis V the Brandenburger (1316–1361), duke of Upper Bavaria, margrave of Brandenburg, count of Tyrol 5. Agnes (b. c. 1318) 6. Stephen II (1319–1375), duke of Lower Bavaria In 1324 he married secondly to Margaret of Holland, countess of Hainaut and Holland. Their children were: 1. Margarete (1325–1374), married: 1.1. in 1351 in Ofen Stephen, Duke of Slavonia (d. 1354); 1.2. 1357/58 Gerlach von Hohenlohe. 2. Anna (c. 1326 – 3 June 1361, Fontenelles) married John I of Lower Bavaria (d. 1340) 3. Louis VI the Roman (1328–1365), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brandenburg. 4. Elisabeth (1329 – 2 August 1402, Stuttgart), married: 4.1. Cangrande II della Scala, Lord of Verona (d. 1359) in Verona on 22 November 135...
Charter given by Louis to the Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Nurembergtaken from the collections of the LBA Marburg
The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich), later referred to as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.
Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon) from 1516, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506.
Biography Family. Matthias was born in the Austrian capital of Vienna as the fourth son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria of Spain.His brothers were Rudolph II (The Later Emperor) Ernest of Austria, Maximilian (from 1585 Grand Master of the Teutonic Order), Albrecht (archbishop of Toledo, later governor of the Netherlands) and Wenceslaus (Grand Prior of the Order of Malta in Castile).
Användande på cs.wikipedia.org Guelfové a ghibellini; Användande på en.wikipedia.org Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor; Thiérache campaign; Tournaisis campaign of 1340; Användande på fr.wikipedia.org Liste des souverains de Bavière; Användande på it.wikipedia.org Sovrani d'Italia; Användande på uk.wikipedia.org
Following the example of Charlemagne's coronation as "Emperor of the Romans" in 800, Otto was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962 by Pope John XII in Rome. Otto's later years were marked by conflicts with the papacy and struggles to stabilize his rule over Italy.