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  1. Luftwaffe - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Luftwaffe

    The Luftwaffe (German pronunciation: [ˈlʊftvafə] ()) was the aerial warfare branch of the Wehrmacht during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Imperial Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Imperial Navy, had been disbanded in May 1920 in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden ...

  2. Luftwaffe - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Luftwaffe
    • The Early Years Including World War I
    • After The War
    • Between The Two World Wars
    • World War II
    • Trivia
    • The Cold War and After
    • Other Websites

    Germany first had aeroplanes in its army in 1910, four years before the start of World War I in 1914. At that time, aeroplanes had no guns. They were being used for reconnaissanceduties. They would fly over the battlefield to see what the enemy was doing and fly back so that the pilots could tell their generals what they knew. The generals used that information to help plan the fighting. During World War I, Germany created the Luftstreitkräfte, known in English as the Imperial German Air Service. The German navyalso had its planes in the Marine-Fliegerabteilung. Guns were fitted to planes in 1915. The fighter aeroplanes became very famous because of its brave pilots. The most famous German pilot of World War I was Manfred von Richthofen, also known as "The Red Baron" of Jasta 11. When he died in combat, Hermann Goeringreplaced him. Germany also used airships called "Zeppelins". They were named after Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, who had built the first airships in 1900. He had wante...

    In November 1918, the "Allies of World War I" (which included Britain and France) won the war, and Germany had to sign the Treaty of Versailles. The treaty said that Germany could not have any military aeroplanes at all because it was blamed for starting the war in 1914. Germany therefore had to destroy all its military aeroplanes as a punishment, so until 1933 it had no air force at all. Between January and September 1918 German pilots shot down 3,732 Allied planes while losing 1,099 aircraft. By the end of the war, the German Army Air Service had a total of 2,709 frontline aircraft, 56 airships, 186 balloon detachments and about 4,500 flying personnel. After the war ended in German defeat, the service was dissolved completely. The Treaty of Versaillesdemanded that its aeroplanes should be destroyed.

    For many years, Germany pretended to have no army pilots. The German army generals did not like the idea of not having any aeroplanes, so they acted secretly and used tricks. At first, pilots would pretend to be training to become airline pilots but this was not much use because they really needed to fly fighters and bombers. The Treaty of Versailles did not allow Germany to have them, so Germany had to ask for help from Russia, its former (and future) enemy. In 1924, German army pilots started to fly Russian fighters and bombers at a secret training school near the Russian city of Lipetsk. These pilots would then become the first ones to fly for the new German air force, the Luftwaffe, when Hitlersaid that it now existed. The training school closed in 1933. In 1935, Adolf Hitlerfinally told the world that Germany had a new air force, even though the Treaty of Versailles forbade it. Hitler was defying the Allies, who had won World War I. The allies did nothing about this, because ma...

    The new airforce in action

    The German air force was the strongest in the world when World War II broke out in September 1939. It supported the army on the ground and the aircraft were very effective at defeating all opposition. The German armed force, the Wehrmacht, had practised a new, fast, way to defeat their enemies. This was called Blitzkrieg or "lightning war". The French and the British were more prepared for a trenchwar.

    Results

    Within a year, Germany had conquered Poland, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, and France. Britain supported the countries attacked by Germany but found herself on her own by June 1940 when Germany had conquered most of western Europe.

    Problems

    As the war went on, things began to go badly wrong for the Luftwaffe. A key event was the Battle of Britain, which was the effort by the Luftwaffe to destroy British industry, and to terrorise the civilian population.Despite destroying major parts of British industry and housing, the Luftwaffe eventually withdrew. The cost to the Luftwaffe of lost planes and skilled men was great. Not only that, but Germany was suffering a shortage of materials needed to build the aeroplanes. Things got worse...

    Germany became famous as the country which flew the first jet aeroplanes. In 1944, the Luftwaffe started to use the world’s first operational jet fighter plane, the Messerschmitt Me-262, even though the engines sometimes did not work properly. Once again, the shortage of materials needed to build the plane as well as the continuing bombing of Germany meant that not as many Me-262s were built as Germany would have liked. Even so, Germany also built and flew the world's first jet bomber, the Arado Ar 234, the world’s first fighter plane powered by a rocket, the Messerschmitt Me-163, the V-1 flying bomb, and V-2 rocket. After the war the allies were quite impressed with Germany's technical know-how & got all they could from the vast array of Luftwaffe aircraft strewn across Germany.

    Once again, the Allies prohibited Germany from having an air force. The Russians were in the eastern half of Germany, and this half became East Germany. The British, French and Americans were in the western half, and this half became West Germany. These became countries in their own right, and East Germany became a Russian puppet state. In case a new war started with Russia and East Germany as enemies, the Western Allies finally allowed West Germany to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation(NATO), an organization of western countries which wanted there to be peace throughout the world. NATO allowed West Germany to have an air force because the country was right next to East Germany.

    Luftwaffe Archives and Records Reference database Archived 2007-08-04 at the Wayback Machine
  3. Operational history of the Luftwaffe (1939–1945) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Operational_history_of_the
    • Invasion of Poland
    • Norway and Denmark
    • Invasion of France and The Low Countries
    • Battle of Britain
    • North Africa and The Mediterranean 1941–44
    • Soviet-German War
    • The Battle of The Atlantic
    • Development of Night Fighting
    • Defense of The Reich, 1942–45
    • The End in The West 1944–45

    On 1 September 1939 German forces invaded Poland, triggering World War II. The Luftwaffe begun the invasion by bombing the undefended town of Wieluń. The Luftwaffe was an instrumental component of the Blitzkrieg battle plan. The Luftwaffe assigned two airfleets to the campaign. Albert Kesselring's Luftflotte 1 was equipped with 807 aircraft, which was augmented by 92 Seaplanes of Fliegerfuhrer der Seeluftstreitkrafte. Alexander Löhr's Luftflotte 4 had 627 aircraft, augmented by 30 Slovak aircraft. A further 406 fighters were retained as part of home defence against potential Polish attack, while another 333 reconnaissance aircraft, under the command of Kommandeur der Luftwaffe, were attached to the army. The Junkers Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers carried out the first mission of the campaign, twenty minutes before war was officially announced. The dive bombers scored the first aerial victory of the war when Kettenführer Leutnant Frank Neubert shot down a Polish PZL P.11cfighter aircraft p...

    Operation Weserübung(9 April–10 June 1940) The Luftwaffe had assembled 527 aircraft for the campaign in Scandinavia, including 300 medium bombers and 50 Stuka dive-bombers. The Germans had also deployed over 40 seaplane reconnaissance aircraft and 200 Junkers Ju 52 transports to carry occupying forces and Fallschirmjäger paratroops. The opposing air forces of Denmark and Norway were poorly equipped. The Danes had only 89 combat aircraft (and only 12 of the relatively modern Fokker D XXI) and the Norwegians a strength of 74. Operation Weserübung commenced on the morning of 9 April 1940. The only hostile engagement the Luftwaffe took part in over Denmark was on the first day of the invasion, when a flight of Bf 110s of 1./ZG 1 (Zerstörergeschwader 1) shot down one Fokker CV taking off on a reconnaissance mission from Vaerlose airfield. The remaining machines were either destroyed or severely damaged by ground strafing.Denmark was virtually overrun within 24 hours and capitulated. The...

    On 10 May 1940, the Wehrmacht launched the invasion of France and the Low Countries. The first phase of the invasion Fall Gelb called for an invasion of the Netherlands and Belgium in which the Germans correctly predicted the French and British Forces would then push into Belgium to stop advances into France. Gelbwould then deliver the main blow, as most of the German armoured divisions would strike through the Ardennes and cut off the Allied forces in northern France, leaving the rest of the country defenseless. The Polish campaign had taught the Luftwaffe valuable lessons. It was no longer thought that it could wipe out the French and British air power immediately on the ground, although Albert Kesselring (Commander of Luftlotte 3) hoped this would be achieved against the Dutch and the Belgians. The French Armée de l'airhad 1,562 aircraft, and initial RAF Fighter Command's strength stood at 680 machines, while Bomber Command could contribute some 392 aircraft to operations. The Lu...

    Following the successful campaign in France, and as a prerequisite for Operation Sea Lion, the invasion of Britain, the Royal Air Force(RAF) had to be defeated. The earlier successes had caused Göring to become overly confident in its abilities and made him boast that the RAF would be defeated in a matter of days. The Luftwaffe had been designed as a tactical air force to support ground forces on the battlefield and had operated this way during the continental campaigns with enormous success. In the Battle of Britain, however, the Luftwaffe was ordered to operate alone, as a strategic weapon. This new role was something the Luftwaffe had never been designed for: it lacked the strategic bombers and long-range fighters needed to initiate a strategic bombing campaign. Therefore, the Luftwaffe's first task was to ensure air supremacy over southeast England, to pave the way for an invasion fleet. The Luftwaffe committed three Luftflotten to the campaign. Luftflotte 2, under Generalfeldma...

    In North Africa and the Mediterranean, the Luftwaffe mainly saw action in support of the ground operations conducted by General Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps. The Afrika Korps fought in North Africa from February 1941 to May 1943. Before Rommel's arrival, Mussolini's invasion of Greece, in October 1940 and the Italian offensive against the British in Egypt the previous month had been a complete disaster. The British had driven the Italian forces back into Libya, and now seemed poised to sweep them out of Africa altogether. The Greek Army had also pushed back the Italians into Italian-occupied Albania, and, while the Greeks hesitated to ask for British troops for fear of German intervention, a few RAF squadrons participated in the operations against the Italians. Hitler was infuriated that the British were now within striking distance to the vital Romanian oil fields of Ploieşti. The Germans postponed their attack on the USSR from 15 May 1941, to the 22 June in order to secure their so...

    Following some early experience in support of the war at sea during the Norwegian Campaign, the Luftwaffe contributed small amounts of forces to the Battle of the Atlantic from 1940 to 1944. These were primarily long-range reconnaissance planes, first with Focke-Wulf Fw 200 and later Junkers Ju 290 maritime patrol aircraft. The initial Focke-Wulf aircraft were very successful, claiming 365,000 tons of shipping in early 1941. The development of escort carriers and increased efforts by RAF Coastal Command soon made the task more dangerous and less rewarding for the Lufftwaffe though. The defeats on the Eastern Front, in North Africa and the ever-increasing raids of British bombers of the Reich ensured that the Luftwaffe's naval arm, the Fliegerfuhrer Atlantik was denied the necessary resources to combat Allied air and naval superiority over the Atlantic. By the end of 1943 a Gruppe of He 177s, that had been committed, lost 17 of their number to air opposition. These units had trained...

    Although night fighting had been undertaken in embryonic form in World War I, the German night fighter force, the Nachtjagd, had to virtually start from scratch when British bombers began to attack targets in Germany in strength from 1940 as far as tactics were concerned. A chain of radar stations was established all across the Reich territory from Norway to the border with Switzerland known as the "Kammhuber Line", named after Generalleutnant Josef Kammhuber, and nearby night fighter wings, Nachtjagdgeschwader (NJG), were alerted to the presence of the enemy. These wings were equipped mostly with Messerschmitt Bf 110 and Junkers Ju 88aircraft, which would later be outfitted with the Lichtenstein nose-mounted radar. The Messerschmitt Bf 110 was the most successful night fighter that served in the Luftwaffe. Among the most notable night fighter aces were Helmut Lent, who shot down 110 enemy aircraft and Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer, who shot down 121 enemy aircraft. Lent mostly flew in t...

    The Luftwaffe on top

    Between 1942 and 1945 the Luftwaffe had to continually expend its resources to counter the Allied strategic bombing campaign against targets deep inside Germany itself. RAF Bomber Command under Sir Arthur Harris had begun bombing German targets in early 1942, but after heavy losses switched to night bombing. The U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF)'s Eighth Air Force eventually joined in the autumn of 1942 flying daylight missions. This campaign became known as The Defense of the Reich. In 1941 the F...

    The turn of the tide

    While the Battle of Britain was described as a "turning point" and caused losses that "could never be made good throughout the course of the war" the Luftwaffe was still able to combat bombing raids by the Allies. Until the development of Allied long-range fighters the Luftwaffe remained capable of inflicting serious losses by the day fighter and night fighter units (Nachtgeschwader), as well as the anti-aircraft guns under its command. The Luftwaffe employed twin-engined Ju 88 and Bf 110 Zer...

    Between January and May 1944 the Luftwaffe undertook Operation Steinbock, the so-called Baby Blitz, assembling 474 bombers for a campaign against London. Steinbock was called off when V-1 rockets became available for the retribution attacks and after the loss of 329 bombers. The lack of night flying experience of the crew contributed to the losses. The bomber force, under the command of Oberst Dietrich Peltz, now had only 143 bombers available for the Normandy invasion. By 1944 the Luftwaffe was no longer in a position to offer serious opposition to Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of France on 6 June 1944. Only a handful of Luftwaffe operations were launched against the beachheads. The most well known was the action to occur over the beaches was a strafing run conducted by the Fw 190 ace Josef Priller and his wingman. Emil Langscored 29 victories against the Western Allies, all but one over the Normandy invasion front, making him the highest-scoring German ace of the campaig...

  4. Luftwaffe (disambiguation) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Luftwaffe_(disambiguation)

    Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It may also refer to one of the following air forces: The Luftwaffe, of Nazi Germany (years 1933 to 1945) The Luftwaffe, of the Federal Republic of Germany (1956 to the present), known as German Air Force in English.

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  6. Organization of the Luftwaffe (1933–1945) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Organization_of_the
    • Formation and Expansion
    • Organizational Levels
    • Strategic Level: Oberkommando Der Luftwaffe
    • Operational Level
    • Tactical Level
    • Ground Combat Forces
    • Identification Markings and Camouflage Schemes
    • See Also
    • Notes
    • References

    During the 1930s and 1940s, air power had not matured enough to be considered a dominant weapon of war. Unlike the other two forces, air power did not have past experience to draw upon. This resulted in the air force having to learn from experience rather than the classroom. There were no cohesive ideas for the organization of a structured, modern air force. One train of thought subordinated the air force to the army in support of land operations and to the navy for maritime tasks. It would be staffed by soldiers or sailors trained to fly. The second theory envisioned a centralized, well organized air force to be used as a weapon of war, like the army and navy. German aviators from World War I, followed this thought process. Since they had the backing of the German political leadership, this is how the Luftwaffe was originally conceived and formed. Following the tradition of putting a soldier in charge of the army and a sailor in charge of the navy, an aviator was designated to lead...

    All aspects of aviation including the Luftwaffe, came under the control of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM), the Reich Air Ministry. Since the Luftwaffe was one of the three armed forces, it came under the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces from a military command point of view (German: Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) (OKW). Göring was the cabinet minister of aviation (German: Reichsminister der Luftfahrt) during most of this period. He also served as the Commander in Chief of the Luftwaffe (German: Oberbefehlshaber der Luftwaffe). As a cabinet minister, he was responsible for civil aviation and all aspects of aircraft manufacturing and supply. Operationally, the Luftwaffe command was shared by the Inspector of Combat Flight (German: General der Kampfflieger) and the Inspector of Fighters (German: General der Jagdflieger) along with the Secretary of State for Aviation. The German air force was divided into three operational branches: 1. Flying Troops 2. Anti-Aircraft Artillery 3...

    The OKW was the highest in the military command structure. It was responsible for the co-ordinated effort of the three military arms. It was headed by Wilhelm Keitel after he took over from war minister Werner von Blombergin 1938. Since the head of the Luftwaffe, Göring, was also a cabinet minister, any Luftwaffe operational orders would come from Hitler to him, who would pass them on to Luftwaffe leaders, bypassing the OKW. On 5 February 1944, through the efforts of Günther Korten and Karl Koller, the Luftwaffe High Command (German: Oberkommando der Luftwaffe) (OKL), was formed. Colonel General (German: Generaloberst) Hans Jeschonnekwas appointed Chief of Staff of the OKL. This created a military command out of the all encompassing Reich Air Ministry (RLM), controlling all aspects of aviation. The OKL covered general as well as operational staff of the Luftwaffe. The following parts of the Luftwaffe were under its command: 1. The General Staff 2. Operational Staff 3. Weapons Inspec...

    Six Luftkreise(Air Service Commands) were established on 1 April 1934. These were each the size of an Air Corps and were basic territorial units of the Luftwaffe following its geographical organization. Their headquarters were as given in the table: In addition, Luftkreis VII was established on 12 October 1937 with its headquarters at Braunschweig, and is shown incorporated into the above-mentioned table Each Luftkreis was led by a Höherer Fliegerkommandeur (Senior Air Commander) in charge of all aviation units within its area. These included, two or three Luftgaukommandos (administrative commands), a signals command, a medical battalion and a procurement and supply group. Their area of operations also included civilian airfields and Civil Air Defense. The following year, all the replacement battalions in that area also came under their control. In 1936, these were extended to regiment size or Fliegerersatzregimente. From 1935 to 1936, Flak units in the area also came under their co...

    Geschwader

    In the Luftwaffe the largest mobile and autonomous unit was the Geschwader. A Geschwader was the equivalent of a Wing in the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF). It would be used for different purposes such as bombing, interception (both single and twin engine), ground attack and reconnaissance. A Geschwader would be named, based on its purpose. There were several Geschwader with the same purpose. They would be named with an Arabic numeral following the word. It was also customary to give a...

    Gruppe

    The Gruppe was the basic autonomous unit in the Luftwaffe, in both administration and strategic use. Each Gruppe would have a Stabschwarm (staff schwarm) of three aircraft. The Gruppe would be commanded by a Gruppenkommandeur, that would be a Major or Hauptmann, who would have a small staff including administration, operations, medical and technical officers. A Gruppe usually occupied one airfield. Gruppen from the same Geschwader typically occupied adjacent airfields. Each would have an air...

    Staffel

    A Staffel usually had nine to 12 aircraft. Others had as few as five or six aircraft due to losses. The commanding officer of a Staffel was known as a Staffelkapitän and had the rank of Hauptmann, Oberleutnant or sometimes Leutnant.[citation needed] Staffeln were numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals within a Geschwader irrespective of the Gruppe they came under. The Staffel designation would be similar to that of the Gruppe except for the Arabic numerals. For example, Staffel 6 of Jagdge...

    Anti-aircraft units

    Luftwaffe controlled the bulk of German anti-aircraft artillery (commonly called Flak) since the 1930s. The smallest tactical unit of anti-aircraft artillery was a battery (German: Batterie). Battery usually had four to six guns. The larger unit was a battalion (Flak-Abteilung), composed of three to five gun batteries and a searchlight battery. Battalions would be "light" (leichte), "mixed" (gemischte), or "heavy" (schwere), referring to the size of guns in their batteries. Flak guns in use w...

    Paratroops

    One of the unique characteristics of the Luftwaffe (as opposed to independent air forces of other nations), was the possession of an organic paratrooper force; the Fallschirmjäger. These were established in 1938. They saw action in their proper role during 1940–1941, most notably in the capture of the Belgian Army fortress at Eben–Emael and the Battle of the Netherlands in May 1940. They also took part in the invasion of Crete in May 1941. More than 4,000 Fallschirmjäger were killed during th...

    Armored Paratroop Division

    As the Prussian Minister of the Interior, Göring formed an elite police force in early 1933. It consisted of 400 men with its headquarters in Berlin. After several name changes within the following six months, it was named the Landespolizeigruppe General Göring. During the next two years, it grew to become the Regiment General Göring. After the formation of the Luftwaffe was announced, Göring transferred this unit to the German air arm. At that time, it consisted of the following units: 1. Re...

    Identification markings

    Aircraft markings were used to distinguish friend from foe. There were several changes in identification markings from 1935 until the end of the war in 1945. From 1933 to 1935, civilian aircraft were painted with a bright red horizontal band with a black swastika in a white circle superimposed, shown only on the vertical stabilizer. From 1936, the Balkenkreuz (national cross with four equal arms), basically inherited from the early spring 1918 period of Luftstreitkräfteservice when it first a...

    Camouflage schemes

    In the Luftwaffe, there were centralized regulations on field camouflage patterns. In practice, these were either amended or ignored. Units in various areas used their own way of painting the aircraft excepting the Geschwaderkennung alphanumeric unit identifiers. Units in the very northern parts of Europe used pale blue wavy lines on a gray background. Night units of both fighters and bombers tended to color their aircraft completely black with a light brown or light gray pattern. This change...

    Footnotes

    1. a By D-Day in June 1944, Luftflotte 3, had units under it, scattered all over France. X. Fliegerkorps was transferred from Greece to Angers, France in March 1944. It acquired the assets of Fliegerführer Atlantik.

    Bickers, Richard Townshend (1996). Von Richthofen: The Legend Evaluated. Naval Institute Press. p. 892. ISBN 1-55750-571-3.
    Boog, Horst; Gerhard Krebs; Vogel Detlef (2006). Germany and the Second World War: Volume VII: The Strategic Air War in Europe and the War in the West and East Asia, 1943–1944/5. Oxford University...
    Bower, Charles F. (1998). World War II in Europe: The Final Year. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 321. ISBN 0-312-21133-3.
    Boyne, Walter J. (2003). The Influence of Air Power Upon History. Pelican Publishing Company. p. 447. ISBN 1-58980-034-6.
  7. Category:Luftwaffe - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Category:Luftwaffe

    L. Operational history of the Luftwaffe (1939–1945) Luftwaffe guards at concentration camps. Luftwaffe order of battle April 1940. Luftwaffe order of battle August 1940. Luftwaffe personnel structure.

  8. Luftwaffe construction units - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Luftwaffe_construction_units
    • Overview
    • History
    • Mission
    • Personnel
    • Organization

    Luftwaffe construction units were established in 1939 from Reichsarbeitsdienst units transferred to the Luftwaffe, and reinforced with technically competent older conscripts, later also with prisoners of war and foreign volunteers. The main task was the construction and maintenance of military air bases. In 1944 the bulk of the construction units were transferred to the Organization Todt; those remaining under Luftwaffe control becoming Luftwaffe pioneers.

    During the buildup of the Luftwaffe, necessary construction work was conducted by private contractors with civilian staff. From 1938 units from the Reichsarbeitsdienst were increasingly used by the Luftwaffe for construction purposes. These RAD-units were from 1939 converted into Luftwaffe construction companies and battalions. From 1941 construction regiments, and sometimes construction brigades, were created. Construction units under RAD control still existed; in 1942, 56 companies served with

    The role of the construction and pioneer units consisted of the implementation of all kind of construction projects, principally air base construction, and especially runway construction and repair. The pioneers were also tasked with the destruction of Luftwaffe installations, as the fronts contracted. Construction and pioneer units were also used to combat partisans, and as first-line troops in emergencies.

    The personnel of the construction units came from the Reichsarbeitsdienst, and from older, technically trained, conscripts. The manual labor were increasingly performed by prisoners of war and by Hiwis.

    The Luftwaffe construction units were immediately subordinated to the air base regional commands, the Koflug, their use directed by its Field Works Office, and at the local air base by its Works Superintendent's Office, composed of technical military officials. On the Luftgau level, a special staff officer, later commander, of the construction units were in charge. In the Reichsluftfahrtministerium an inspector of construction units supervised the technical and military training, and the appropr

    • Air base construction
    • Lw. Inspektion 17, OKL
  9. Luftwaffe Field Divisions - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Luftwaffe_Field_Division
    • History
    • Divisions
    • Luftwaffe Field Corps
    • See Also

    The divisions were originally authorized in October 1942, following suggestions that the German Army could be bolstered by transferring personnel from other services. The head of the Luftwaffe, Hermann Göring, formulated an alternative plan to raise his own infantry formations under the command of Luftwaffe officers; this was at least partly due to political differences with the Heer. Göring took great pride in the degree of political commitment and indoctrination of the air force men (he went as far as to describe the air-force paratroopers as "political soldiers") while the Army was considered (by Nazi standards) too "conservative" (linked to traditions and ideals harking back to the Imperial days of the Kaiser). The plan was approved, and the divisions were raised from 200,000 to 250,000 Luftwaffe ground, support and other excess personnel. They were initially organized with two Jäger regiments of three battalions each, along with an artillery battalion and other support units, b...

    2nd Luftwaffe Field Division - At the Battle of Nevel (1943), the Soviet assault force struck and demolished the 2nd Luftwaffe Field Division. Like all the Luftwaffe "divisions" the 2nd was in fact...
    I Luftwaffe Field Corps, planned winter 1942–1943 on the basis of the XIII. Fliegerkorps, but never really established.
    II Luftwaffe Field Corps, Oktober 1942 - 1 November 1943 : 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 6th Luftwaffe Field Division (Alfred Schlemm)
    III Luftwaffe Field Corps, January 1943 - November 1943 : 9th and 10th Luftwaffe Field Division (Job Odebrecht)
    IV Luftwaffe Field Corps, January 1943 - 19 November 1944 : 198th, 716th and 189th Infantry Division (Erich Petersen)
  10. Luftwaffe (Bundeswehr) – Wikipedia

    de.wikipedia.org › wiki › Luftwaffe_(Bundeswehr)
    • Geschichte
    • Auftrag und Aufgaben
    • Dienstbereiche
    • Organisation und Führung
    • Personal
    • Ausbildung
    • Ausrüstung
    • Einsätze
    • Siehe Auch
    • Literatur

    Gründungsjahre

    Die ersten Freiwilligen der in den Anfangsjahren der Bundeswehr teilweise noch umgangssprachlich Bundesluftwaffe genannten Luftwaffe traten im Januar 1956 in Nörvenich in der Luftwaffenlehrkompanie ihren Dienst an. Im gleichen Jahr wurden zahlreiche Dienststellen aufgestellt und die Luftwaffe erhielt ihre ersten Luftfahrzeuge. Eine besondere Herausforderung bestand darin, die fehlende Expertise im Aufbau einer modernen Luftwaffe zu kompensieren. Im verstrichenen Zehn-Jahres-Zeitraum seit dem...

    Die erste große Umgliederung

    Im Jahr 1963 wurde die Luftwaffe erstmals umfassend umgegliedert. Den beiden Luftwaffengruppenkommandos Nord und Süd wurden je zwei querschnittlich aufgestellte Divisionen und eine Unterstützungsdivision zugeordnet. Aus Sorge, dass bei einem Angriff des Warschauer Paktes die Verbände im Norden – insbesondere in Schleswig-Holstein– abgeschnitten würden, wurde die 7. Luftwaffendivision aufgestellt, die durch die Bandbreite ihrer unterstellten Verbände praktisch eine kleine Luftwaffe innerhalb d...

    Aufstellung für die nächsten 20 Jahre – eine neue Luftwaffenstruktur

    Das Jahr 1967 bedeutete den Beginn einer erneuten Umgliederungsphase der Luftwaffe, die bis 1970 andauerte. Mit der Einnahme der neuen Luftwaffenstruktur sollte die Führung der Einsatzverbände mit dem neu geschaffenen Luftflottenkommando ab 1970 aus einer Hand erfolgen. Die beiden Luftwaffengruppen Nord und Süd wurden aufgelöst und vier Luftwaffendivisionen in reine Luftangriffs- und Luftverteidigungsdivisionen umgegliedert. Dem Luftwaffenamt wurden das Lufttransportkommando mit den Lufttrans...

    Die Luftwaffe bringt die besonderen Fähigkeiten von Luftstreitkräften zur Erfüllung des Auftrags der Bundeswehrein. In diesem Rahmen ist sie für die Überwachung und den Schutz des Luftraums über Deutschland zuständig. Dazu werden bereits im Frieden durch die Jagd- und Einsatzführungsverbände lufthoheitliche Aufgaben wahrgenommen. Sie hält Kräfte bereit, die in Konflikten und Kriegen zur Kampf- und Einsatzunterstützung militärischer Operationen von Heer und Marine und zur Bekämpfung strategisch bedeutender Ziele aus der Luft eingesetzt werden können. Insbesondere die Lufttransportverbände tragen zu humanitären Hilfeleistungen und Friedensmissionen der Vereinten Nationenund zu nationalen Evakuierungseinsätzen bei.

    Die Luftwaffe lässt sich analog zu den Truppengattungenbeim Heer in die folgenden Dienstbereiche untergliedern: 1. Fliegerischer Dienst: die fliegenden Verbände im Bereich Luftwaffentruppenkommando sind in die Kampf- und die Lufttransportverbände unterteilt. 1.1. Zwei Lufttransportgeschwader und ein Hubschraubergeschwader stellen mit dem Airbus A400M, der Transall C-160 und der CH-53die Versorgung von Verbänden aus der Luft in praktisch allen Einsatzgebieten sicher, in denen sich Kräfte der Bundeswehr befinden. 1.2. Die Flugbereitschaft des Bundesministeriums der Verteidigung leistet neben dem parlamentarischen Flugbetrieb einen wichtigen Beitrag für alle Einsätze deutscher und verbündeter Streitkräfte durch den schnellen Rücktransport von verwundetem Personal (Strategic Air Medical Evacuation) in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Sanitätsdienst. Durch die Umrüstung der Airbus A310 zum Tankflugzeugsteht der Luftwaffe zudem eine Engpassressource zur Verfügung. 1.3. Das Taktische Luftwaffengesch...

    An der Spitze der Luftwaffe steht der Inspekteur der Luftwaffe im Kommando Luftwaffe. Als truppendienstlicher Vorgesetzter seiner Teilstreitkraft untersteht er dem Generalinspekteur der Bundeswehr. Die Luftwaffe gliedert sich unterhalb des Kommandos Luftwaffe in das Zentrum Luftoperationen der Luftwaffe in Kalkar und das Luftwaffentruppenkommando mit seinem Sitz in der Luftwaffenkaserne Wahn am Standort Köln.

    Soldaten

    Die Luftwaffe hat einen Personalumfang von etwa 28.000 Soldaten und ist somit nach dem Heerdie zweitgrößte Teilstreitkraft. Alle Laufbahnen und Verwendungen stehen bei Eignung für die vorgesehene Stelle auch weiblichen Soldaten offen. Da der in vielen Bereichen hohe Grad der Technisierung häufig eine entsprechende Spezialisierung und aufwändige fachliche Qualifikation erfordert, ist der Anteil von Unteroffizieren und Offizierengerade in den fliegenden Verbänden sehr hoch. Gemäß der 2011 von B...

    Zivilpersonal

    Der Umfang des Zivilpersonals wird in wenigen Jahren 5.950 Beamte und Beschäftigtebetragen. Eine Verwendung dieser Kräfte erfolgt beispielsweise in hoher Zahl in der Instandsetzung und bei der Feuerwehr. Ziviles Personal hat gegenüber militärischem den Vorteil, dass es eine höhere Verfügbarkeit (Facharbeitszeit) im jeweiligen Aufgabenbereich hat. Anders als bei Soldaten entfallen bei ihm zahlreiche militärspezifische oder laufbahntechnische Aus- und Weiterbildungsmaßnahmen mit hohen Abwesenhe...

    Dienstgrade/Uniform

    Die Bezeichnungen der Dienstgradesind mit denen der Teilstreitkraft Heer identisch. Der Feldanzugbei Luftwaffe und Heer ist grundsätzlich identisch. Zur Unterscheidung dienen beim Feldanzug an den Dienstgradabzeichen angebrachte stilisierte Schwingen statt der beim Heer üblichen farbigen Litzen. Der Dienstanzug der Luftwaffe ist dunkelblau mit goldgelben Kragenspiegeln. Als Kopfbedeckung wird ein blaues Schiffchen oder eine blaue Schirmmütze getragen. Lediglich für die Objektschutzkräfte ist...

    Die Grundausbildung von Luftwaffenpersonal wird durch das Luftwaffenausbildungsbataillon an den Standorten Roth und Germersheim durchgeführt. Die Ausbildung des Führungsnachwuchses erfolgt an der Unteroffizierschule der Luftwaffe in Appen bzw. Heide und der Offizierschule der Luftwaffe in Fürstenfeldbruck. Luftwaffenoffiziere des Truppendienstes studieren wie die Offiziere der anderen Teilstreitkräfte in der Regel an einer der beiden Universitäten der Bundeswehr, Offiziere des militärfachlichen Dienstes besuchen die Fachschule der Luftwaffe in Faßberg. Für die fachliche Ausbildung ihres Personals unterhält die Luftwaffe zentrale Ausbildungseinrichtungen und -verbände. Flugzeugtechniker und Flugsicherungspersonal werden am Technischen Ausbildungszentrum der Luftwaffe Abt. Süd in Kaufbeuren, Techniker für Hubschrauber am Technischen Ausbildungszentrum der Luftwaffe Abt. Nord in Faßberg ausgebildet. Die Ausbildung des Personals des Einsatzführungsdienstes erfolgt beim Einsatzführungsbe...

    Die Luftwaffe verwendet seit ihrer Aufstellung hauptsächlich Gerät, das in multinationaler Kooperation entwickelt oder von NATO-Staaten gekauft und/oder in Lizenz gebaut wurde. Eine Übersicht über Flugzeuge findet sich in der Liste von Luftfahrzeugen der Bundeswehr. Zahlreiche historische Exponate können im Militärhistorischen Museum Flugplatz Berlin-Gatow (vormals: Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr) in Berlin-Gatowbesichtigt werden.

    Die Luftwaffe ist an allen Auslandseinsätzen der Bundeswehrbeteiligt. Die Hauptlast tragen die Lufttransportverbände und die Flugbereitschaft BMVg mit der Verlegung von Personal und Material der Bundeswehr und befreundeter Staaten und der Bereitstellung der Fähigkeit zur Evakuierung von Verwundeten. Auch die Objektschutztruppe ist in nahezu allen Einsatzgebieten vertreten. Darüber hinaus wurden und werden Kräfte der Luftwaffe im Rahmen ihrer jeweiligen Fähigkeiten eingesetzt:

    Eberhard Birk, Heiner Möllers, Wolfgang Schmidt: Die Luftwaffe zwischen Politik und Technik. (= Schriften zur Geschichte der Deutschen Luftwaffe. Band 2). Hartmann, Miles-Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN...
    Eberhard Birk, Peter Andreas Popp (Hrsg.): LwOffz21. Das Selbstverständnis des Luftwaffenoffiziers zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts. (= Schriften zur Geschichte der Deutschen Luftwaffe. Band 5). Hart...
    Hans-Werner Jarosch (Hrsg.): Immer im Einsatz. 50 Jahre Luftwaffe. Mittler, Hamburg u. a. 2005, ISBN 3-8132-0837-0.
    Bernd Lemke, Dieter Krüger, Heinz Rebhan, Wolfgang Schmidt: Die Luftwaffe 1950 bis 1970. Konzeption, Aufbau, Integration. (= Sicherheitspolitik und Streitkräfte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Band...
    • 9. Januar 1956
    • Bundeswehr