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  1. Madurai - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Madurai

    Madurai is one of the seven circles of the Tamil Nadu State Highway network. Madurai is the headquarters of the Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (Madurai) and provides local and inter-city bus transport across the districts of Madurai, Dindigul, Sivagangai, Theni, Virudhunagar.

    • 101 m (331 ft)
    • India
  2. Madurai - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Madurai

    Madurai is a city in Tamil Nadu, India. It was the capital of the earlier Pandyan Kingdom. Meenakshi Amman Temple, Ayiram Kal Mandabam (Hall of Thousand Pillars) are some of the important tourist places in Madurai. Madurai is always considered to be a good pilgrim center.

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    Why was Madurai called the capital of Tamil Nadu?

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  4. Madurai district - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Madurai_district

    Madurai district is one of the 38 districts of the state of Tamil Nadu in southeastern India. The city of Madurai serves as the district headquarters. It houses the famous Sri Meenakshi Sundareshwarar temple and is situated on the banks of the river Vaigai. Thiruparankundram is one of the major tourist place in the district.

    • 3,710 km² (1,430 sq mi)
    • India
  5. Madurai - Wikipedia

    pam.wikipedia.org › wiki › Madurai

    Madurai. Ing Madurai pronunciation ( help · info) ( Tamil: மதுரை , IPA: [mɐd̪ɯrəj]) metung yang lakanbalen o ciudad ampong municipal corporation king pampang ning Ilug Vaigai king Madurai (distritu), king estadu ning Tamil Nadu, India. Ausan de murin ing lakanbalen kareng lagiung Madura, a yagkas dang Ma ju ra, ampong Nan mada ...

    • 109 km² (42 sq mi), • 8 m (26 ft)
    • 922,913 (2001), •
  6. Madurai – Wikipedia

    sv.wikipedia.org › wiki › Madurai

    Madurai (Madura) är en stad vid floden Vaidai i den indiska delstaten Tamil Nadu och är centralort i ett distrikt med samma namn. Folkmängden uppgick till 1 017 865 invånare vid folkräkningen 2011, med förorter 1 465 625 invånare. Staden är känd som " festivalernas och templens stad".

  7. Madurai Sultanate - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Madurai_Sultanate

    e Ma'bar Sultanate (Persian: مابار سلطنت ‎), unofficially known as the Madurai Sultanate, was a short lived independent kingdom based in the city of Madurai in Tamil Nadu, India. The sultanate was proclaimed in 1335 when the then viceroy of Madurai, Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan declared his independence from the Delhi Sultanate.

    • Monarchy
    • Persian (official)
  8. Madurai Nayak dynasty - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Madurai_Nayak_Dynasty
    • Overview
    • History
    • Administration
    • Culture
    • Nayaka coins

    The Madurai Nayaks were rulers of Telugu origin from around 1529 until 1736, of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu, India, with Madurai as their capital. The Nayak reign was an era noted for its achievement in arts, cultural and administrative reforms, revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi Sultans, and inauguration of a unique architectural style. The Madurai Nayaks had their Social Origins among the Balija merchant Nayaks Warrior Clans in South India, partic

    Originally, the Nayakas were Telugu-speaking Warrior-merchants Balija caste.who started as kartakkals of the Vijayanagar empire in southern regions of what would become Tamil Nadu. That region had long been a troubled province due to its distance from Vijayanagara and had been on

    After his death a succession crisis arose and Krishnappa Nayaka II's youngest brother, Kasturi Rangappa, seized the throne but was assassinated a week later. Muttu Krishnappa Nayaka, the son of Krishnappa Nayaka II's second brother, became ruler. His rule was mainly focused on th

    Tirumala was succeeded by his son in 1659, who ruled for only four months, and then was succeeded by Chokkanatha Nayaka. In the first part of his reign, his army commander and chief minister revolted, supported by Thanjavur. He crushed the insurgents and invaded Thanjavur in reta

    The Madurai Nayakas followed a decentralized governance style. The king was supreme ruler, but his main advisor was the dalavai, who controlled both civil and military matters. The three most effective dalavais were Ariyanatha Mudaliar, Eamppayya and Narasappayya. The next most important figure was the pradhani or finance minister, and then the rayasam, chief of the bureaucracy. The empire was divided into provinces and local areas, each with its own governor and bureaucracy. The most basic unit

    The main languages of Nayaka rule were Telugu and Tamil. Tamil was mainly used by the common people, although there were some Telugu cultivators in the region. The Madurai Nayakas, on the other hand, had Telugu as mother tongue but could also speak Tamil.

    The Nayakas were great patrons of literature in Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit. Although most kings patronized mainly poetry, under Nayaka patronage Telugu prose flourished.

    The Nayakas were some of the most prolific architects in South India. Much of their work was expansions and additions to existing Vijayanagara or pre-Vijayanagara structures. By far their greatest work was the Meenakshi-Surendeswara complex in Madurai, which is known for its four

    Some early Madurai Nayaka coins portray the figure of the king. The bull also is seen frequently on the Madurai Nayak coins. Chokkanatha Nayak, one of the last rulers of the dynasty, issued coins displaying various animals, such as the bear, elephant and lion. He also issued coins featuring Hanuman and Garuda. The inscriptions on the Nayak coins are in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and Nagari scripts. Unlike the coins of many of the earlier dynasties, the Nayak coins are easily available for coin-coll

    • Governors, then Monarchy
    • Tamil, Telugu
  9. Meenakshi Temple, Madurai - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Meenakshi_Amman_Temple
    • Overview
    • Location
    • History
    • Description
    • Deities Inside The Temple
    • Significance
    • Worship
    • Literary Mention
    • External Links

    Madurai Meenakshi Sundareswarar temple was built by King Kulasekara Pandya (1190-1216 CE). He built the main Portions of the three-storeyed gopura at the entrance of Sundareswarar Shrine and the central portion of the Goddess Meenakshi Shrine are some of the earliest surviving parts of the temple. The traditional texts call him a poet-saint king, additionally credit him with a poem called Ambikai Malai, as well as shrines (koil) each for Natarajar and Surya near the main temple, Ayyanar in the east, Vinayagar in the south, Kariamalperumal in the west and Kali in the north. He also built a Mahamandapam. Kulasekara Pandya was also a poet and he composed a poem on Meenakshi named Ambikai Malai.Maravarman Sundara Pandyan I built a gopura in 1231, then called Avanivendaraman, later rebuilt, expanded and named as Sundara Pandya Thirukkopuram. Chitra gopuram (W), also known as Muttalakkum Vayil, was built by Maravarman Sundara Pandyan II (1238-1251). This gopuram is named after the frescoe...

    The Meenakshi temple is located in the heart of historic Madurai city, about a kilometer south of the Vaigai River. It is about 460 kilometres (290 mi) southwest from Chennai, the state capital. The temple complex is well connected with road network (four lane National Highway 38), near a major railway junction and an airport (IATA: IXM) with daily services. The city roads radiate from the temple complex and major ring roads form a concentric pattern for the city, a structure that follows the Silpa Sastra guidelines for a city design.Madurai is one of the many temple towns in the state which is named after the groves, clusters or forests dominated by a particular variety of a tree or shrub and the same variety of tree or shrub sheltering the presiding deity. The region is believed to have been covered with Kadamba forest and hence called Kadambavanam.

    The town of Madurai is ancient and one mentioned in Sangam era texts. These are dated to be from the 1st to 4th century CE. Some early Tamil texts call Madurai as Koodal, and these portray it as a capital and a temple town where every street radiated from the temple. Goddess Meenakshi is described as the divine ruler, who along with Shiva were the primary deities that the southern Tamil kingdoms such as the Pandya dynasty revered. The early texts imply that a temple existed in Madurai by the mid 6th century. In medieval literature and inscriptions, it is sometimes referred to as Kadambavanam (lit. "forest of Kadamba") or Velliambalam (lit. "silver hall" where Shiva danced). It was described to be the sangam of scholars, or a place where scholars meet. It is mentioned in the Tamil text Tiruvilayadalpuranam and the Sanskrit text Halasya Mahatmya. It is one of the shrines of the 275 Paadal Petra Sthalams. Early Tamil texts mention the temple and its primary deity by various epithets an...

    The temple complex is the center of the old city of Madurai. It consists of monuments inside a number of concentric enclosures, each layer fortified with high masonry walls. The outer walls have four towering gateways, allowing devotees and pilgrims to enter the complex from all four directions. After the city's destruction in the 14th century, the Tamil tradition states that the king Vishwantha Nayaka rebuilt the temple and the Madurai city around it in accordance with the principles laid down in the Shilpa Shastras (Sanskrit: śilpa śāstra. The city plan is based on concentric squares with streets radiating out from the temple. Early Tamil texts mention that the temple was the center of the city and the streets happened to be radiating out like a lotus and its petals. The temple prakarams(outer precincts of a temple) and streets accommodate an elaborate festival calendar in which processions circumambulate the temple complex. The vehicles used in the processions are progressively m...

    Sundareshwarar (Main God)
    Meenakshi Amman (Main Goddess)
    Mukkuruni Vinayagar
    Irattai Vinayagar

    The Meenakshi Temple is a theologically and culturally significant temple for Hindus. Professor Christopher Fuller signifies that through the wedding of Meenakshi and Sundaresvara the "supremely important rite of passage" for women, the cultural concept of "sumangali" or "auspicious married woman" who lives with her husband but is also independent, organizer of the social connections and who is central to Tamilian life. The marriage of the goddess and god is a symbolic paradigm for human marriage. This event is commemorated with an annual festive procession that falls sometime around April. The temple is also significant because it implies an affinal, protective relationship between Shaivism and Vaishnavism traditions of Hinduism, by making Shiva the husband of Meenakshi, and Vishnu her brother, a significant relationship in Dravidian kinship system. Meenakshi herself is a central part of the Shaktismtradition of Hinduism, and represented as the dominant figure of the pair in this t...

    The Meenakshi Amman temple is an active house of Hindu worship. Priests perform the puja ceremonies on a daily basis and during festivals. Volunteers and temple staff also participate in daily rituals, such as symbolically moving an icon of Sundaresvara in a palanquin to Meenakshi's chamber every night so that they can be together, then waking the two and returning Sundaresvara to his shrine every morning. There are periodic ratha(chariot) processions where one of the metal copy icon of the goddess is taken out of the temple in an elaborate car shrine decorated with colorful clothes and flowers, with volunteers pulling the car through the streets of Madurai and circumambulating the temple complex on one of the concentric roads in the old city. This symbolizes her mythical conquests and her presence in the secular life of the people. The temple has a six time pooja calendar everyday, each comprising four rituals namely abhisheka (sacred bath), alangaram (decoration), neivethanam (foo...

    Over the centuries, the temple has been a centre of education of culture, literature, art, music and dance. The temple is famed location where Tamil tradition believes Sambandarhelped establish Tamil Shiva bhakti. Kumaraguruparar, a 17th-century Tamil poet, composed Meenakshi Pillaitamil in praise of presiding deity of this temple. King Tirumalai Nayak's patronage of the poet Kumaraguruparar has an important place in the history of pillaitamil (a genre of Tamil literature). Kumaraguruparar visited a lot of temples and when he visited this temple, he composed Meenakshi pillaitamildedicated to the goddess Meenakshi. Shyama Shastri, one of the Trinity of Carnatic music, had composed a set of nine Telugu songs in praise of Meenakshi of Madurai, which are referred to as Navaratnamalika(Garland of nine gems).According to legend, when Sastri sang these songs infront of presiding deity, the goddess had responded visibly.

  10. Madurai – Wikipedie

    cs.wikipedia.org › wiki › Madurai
    • Historie
    • Chrámy
    • Muzea
    • Medicínské Názvosloví
    • Obrázková Galerie
    • odkazy

    Nejstarší zmínky o městě Madurai pochází již ze 4 stol. př.n.l. Objevují se ve starotamilské a starořecké literatuře. Město bylo centrem obchodu s kořením a sídlila zde akademie starotamilských básníků - sangam. V průběhu staletí se vláda v Madurai měnila, bylo postupně pod nadvládou Čólů, Pándjů, muslimských dobyvatelů, vidžajanagarských králů a Nájaků. Nájakové vládli až do roku 1781, později přešlo město do správy Britské Východoindické společnosti.

    Rušnými ulicemi města Madurai denně prochází zástupy turistů, obchodníků, žebráků, ale i poutníků navštěvující tamější chrámy. Mezi nejvýznamnější pamětihodnosti této oblasti patří 1. Chrám Šrí Minákší 2. Palác Nájaka Tirumalaje

    V poklidné oblasti města Madurai se nachází Pamětní muzeum Gándhího, poblíž kterého je i Maduraiské státní muzeum. Obě tato muzea se zabývají indickým bojem za nezávislost od roku 1757 až do roku 1947. Je zde k vidění slavný Gándhího dhótí (dlouhý lněný oděv), který měl Gándhí na sobě při atentátu v Dilí.

    Roku 1842 bylo v Madurai poprvé diagnostikováno infekční plísňové onemocnění napadající dolní končetiny a vytvářející objemné abscesy, pojmenované podle města jako madurská noha.

    Chrám Šrí Minákší
    Palác Nájaka Tirumalaje
    Gándhího muzeum

    Reference

    V tomto článku byl použit překlad textu z článku Maduraina anglické Wikipedii.

    Literatura

    1. Lonely Planet, India: 9. vydání, srpen 2001, Překlad: Jana Vilimovská,Pavel Wurm, Czech edition Svojtka&Co., 2003 2. Lonely Planet, South India: 4. vydání, 2007, Překlad: Eva Cachová,Jana Chaloupková, Lenka Vacinová,Helena Svobodová, Czech edition Svojtka&Co, 2008 3. Berlitz, Indie, Původní text: Jack Altman, Český překlad: Václav Klumpar, vydavatelství RO-TO-M a.s.

    Externí odkazy

    1. Obrázky, zvuky či videa k tématu Madurai na Wikimedia Commons

    • 8 m n. m.
    • 109 km²
    • 1 203 095 (2011)
    • Indie
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