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  1. Marine protistsare defined by their habitat as protiststhat live in marine environments, that is, in the saltwaterof seas or oceans or the brackishwater of coastal estuaries. Life originated as single-celled prokaryotes(bacteria and archaea) and later evolved into more complex eukaryotes.

  2. Marine microorganisms are defined by their habitat as microorganisms living in a marine environment, that is, in the saltwater of a sea or ocean or the brackish water of a coastal estuary. A microorganism (or microbe) is any microscopic living organism or virus, that is too small to see with the unaided human eye without magnification.

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    What is a marine protist?

    What is the difference between marine protists and mixotrophs?

    Is macroalgae a marine protist?

    What is the function of marine saprobic protists?

    • Background
    • Foundations of Productive Ecosystems
    • Reproduction and Host Development
    • Biofouling and Microbial Community Assembly
    • Biogeochemical Cycling
    • Examples
    • Marine Holobionts
    • Further References

    Within the vast biological diversity that inhabits the world’s oceans, it would be challenging to find a eukaryotic organism that does not live in close relationship with a microbial partner. Such symbioses, i.e., persistent interactions between host and microbe in which none of the partners gets harmed and at least one of them benefits, are ubiqui...

    Ecosystem engineers, such as many types of corals, deep-sea mussels, and hydrothermal vent tubeworms, contribute to primary productivity and create the structural habitats and nutrient resources that are the foundation of their respective ecosystems. All of these taxa engage in mutualistic nutritional symbioses with microbes. There are many example...

    Extending beyond nutritional symbioses, microbial symbionts can alter the reproduction, development, and growth of their hosts. Specific bacterial strains in marine biofilms often directly control the recruitment of planktonic larvae and propagules, either by inhibiting settlement or by serving as a settlement cue. For example, the settlement of zo...

    Some host-associated microbes produce compounds that prevent biofouling and regulate microbiome assembly and maintenance in many marine organisms, including sponges, macroalgae, and corals. For example, tropical corals harbor diverse bacteria in their surface mucus layer that produce quorum-sensing inhibitors and other antibacterial compounds as a ...

    Host-associated microbiomes also influence biogeochemical cycling within ecosystems with cascading effects on biodiversity and ecosystem processes. For example, microbial symbionts comprise up to 40% of the biomass of their sponge hosts. Through a process termed the “sponge-loop,” they convert dissolved organic carbon released by reef organisms int...

    The microbiomes of diverse marine animals are currently under study, from simplistic organisms including sponges and ctenophores to more complex organisms such as sea squirtsand sharks. The relationship between the Hawaiian bobtail squid and the bioluminescent bacterium Aliivibrio fischeriis one of the best studied symbiotic relationships in the se...

    Reef-building corals are holobionts that include the coral itself (a eukaryotic invertebrate within class Anthozoa), photosynthetic dinoflagellates called zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium), and associated bacteria and viruses.Co-evolutionary patterns exist for coral microbial communities and coral phylogeny. 1. Coral holobiont 2. Seagrass holobiont 3. S...

    Stal, L. J. and Cretoiu, M. S. (Eds.) (2016) The marine microbiome: an untapped source of biodiversity and biotechnological potential Springer. ISBN 9783319330006.

  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Marine_lifeMarine life - Wikipedia

    Marine life, sea life, or ocean life is the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. At a fundamental level, marine life affects the nature of the planet. Marine organisms, mostly microorganisms, produce oxygen and sequester carbon.

  5. The diversity of marine microbial organisms is very high. A non-exhaustive classification is shown in Fig. 1. Microbes, mainly bacteria and protists, account for around 70% of the total marine biomass. Microorganisms are crucial to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers.

  6. The diversity of marine microbial organisms is very high. A non-exhaustive classification is shown in Fig. 1. Microbes, mainly bacteria and protists, account for around 70% of the total marine biomass. Microorganisms are crucial to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers.

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