- Native Americans in the United States (also known as Indians) are the indigenous peoples from the areas of North America now part of the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. The Cherokee were the first Native Americans to be recognized as US citizens. In the 19th century white colonists called the Cherokee one of the Five Civilized Tribes.
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In 2009, an "apology to Native Peoples of the United States" was included in the Defense Appropriations Act. It stated that the U.S. "apologizes on behalf of the people of the United States to all Native Peoples for the many instances of violence, maltreatment, and neglect inflicted on Native Peoples by citizens of the United States".
The United States initially treated the Native Americans who had fought as allies with the British as a conquered people who had lost their lands. Although most members of the Iroquois tribes went to Canada with the Loyalists, others tried to stay in New York and western territories to maintain their lands.
- Historic struggles
- Unity and nationalism
Native American identity in the United States is an evolving topic based on the struggle to define "Native American" or " Indian" both for people who consider themselves Native American and for people who do not. Some people seek an identity that will provide for a stable definition for legal, social, and personal purposes. There are a number of different factors which have been used to define "Indianness," and the source and potential use of the definition play a role in what definition is used
There are various ways in which Indian identity has been defined. Some definitions seek universal applicability, while others only seek definitions for particular purposes, such as for tribal membership or for the purposes of legal jurisdiction. The individual seeks to have a personal identity that matches social and legal definitions, although perhaps any definition will fail to categorize correctly the identity of everyone. American Indians were perhaps clearly identifiable at the turn of the
Florida State anthropologist J. Anthony Paredes considers the question of Indianness that may be asked about pre-ceramic peoples, pre-maize burial mound cultures, etc. Paredes asks, "Would any have been any less awed than ourselves to come upon a so-called Paleo-Indian hunter hurling a spear at a woolly mastodon?" His question reflects the point that indigenous cultures are themselves the products of millennia of history and change. The question of "Indianness" was different in colonial times. I
The issue of Indianness had somewhat expanded meaning in the 1960s with Indian nationalist movements such as the American Indian Movement. The American Indian Movement unified nationalist identity was in contrast to the "brotherhood of tribes" nationalism of groups like the National Indian Youth Council and the National Congress of American Indians. This unified Indian identity has been cited to the teachings of 19th century Shawnee leader Tecumseh to unify all Indians against "white oppression.
Different tribes have unique cultures, histories, and situations that have made particular the question of identity in each tribe. Tribal membership may be based on descent, blood quantum, and/or reservation habitation.
This is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America.There are also federally recognized Alaska Native tribes.As of 19 February 2020, 574 Indian tribes were legally recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) of the United States.
This is a list of Native Americans with documented tribal ancestry or affiliation in the U.S. Congress. Map of all congressional districts represented by Native Americans in the 117th Congress . Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-Colorado), a Northern Cheyenne and one of only 4 Native Senators in U.S. history.
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Native Americans (also called Aboriginal Americans, American Indians, Amerindians or indigenous peoples of America) are the people and their descendants, who were in the Americas when Europeans arrived. There are many different tribes of Native American people, with many different languages.
In 1790, the United States census report indicated that the number of slaves in the state was 6,001, with an unknown proportion of Native Americans, but at least 200 were cited as half-breed Indians (meaning half African).